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EFFECTS OF CHILD ABUSE ON PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL IN KAPYEMIT WARD, TURBO CONSTITUENCY, UASIN-GISHU COUNTY.





BY
ERICK NYAKUNDI
KIS/03013/14




A RESEARCH PROJECTSUBMITED TO THE SCHOOL OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY IN THE PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SOCIOLOGY



MAY, 2014

DECLARATION

I, the undersigned, declare that this project is my original work and that it has not been presented in any other university or institution for academic credit.

Signature...............................................­..... Date...................................
ERICK NYAKUNDI
KIS/03013/14






SUPERVISOR
This project has been submitted for examination with my approval as university supervisor
DR. W. O. ABUYA
Signature..................................................­.. Date....................................




DEDICATION
I dedicate this work to my Dad, Mom, my sister Lydia and my lovely brother Dun who contributed in one way or another to make this project to be successful.


















ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to thank all individuals who contributed and sacrificed their time towards completion of this project.
To my supervisor, for the guidance and support in the development of this research project, His advice and criticism made this project what it is.
Thanks to colleagues and friends for their suggestions, advice and encouragement. To all of you may God bless you abundantly for your tireless effort.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Contents Page
DECLARATION i
DEDICATION ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF FIGURE viii
ABSTRACT ix
CHAPTER ONE 10
STUDY OVERVIEW AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 10
1.1 Background of the Study 10
1.2 Research Questions 13
1.3 Research Objectives 13
1.4 Justification of the Study 13
1.5 Significance of the Study 14
1.6 Scope of the Study 15
1.6.1Assumptions of the Study 16
CHAPTER TWO 17
LITERATURE REVIEW 17
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Common Forms of Child Abuse 17
2.2.1 Child ****** Abuse 17
2.2.2 Physiological or Emotional Abuse 17
2.2.3 Physical Abuse 18
2.2.4 Child Neglect or Abandonment 18
2.2.4.1 Physical Neglect 19
2.2.4.2 Educational Neglect 19
2.2.4.3 Medical Neglect 19
2.2.5 Child Fatalities 20
2.3 How Child Abuse Affects Academic Performance 20
2.3.1 Child Abuse and Academic Performance 20
2.3.2 Child Abuse and School Image 23
2.3.3 Child Abuse and Dropout Rate 25
2.4 Strategies that Schools can Employ to Curb Child Abuse 26
2.4.1 Role of Public Regulation 26
2.4.1.1 Nurturing and Attachment 27
2.4.1.2 Social Connections 27
2.5 Theoretical Framework 27
2.5.1 Learning Theory 28
2.5.1.1 Relationship with the Study 28
2.5.2 Family Dysfunction Theory 29
2.5.2.1 Relationship with the Study 29
CHAPTER THREE 30
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 30
3.0 Introduction 30
3.1 Site Description 30
3.2 Research Design 30
3.3.1 Target Population 30
3.3.2 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure 31
3.4 Description of Research Instruments 32
3.4.1 Research Instrument 32
3.4.1.1 Questionnaire 32
3.5 Data Collection Procedure 32
3.5.1 Validity and Reliability of Research Instruments 33
3.5.1.1 Reliability of Research Instruments 33
3.5.1.2 Validity 33
3.6 Data Analysis and Presentation 33
CHAPTER FOUR 35
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 35
4.0 Introduction 35
4.1 Background Information 35
4.1.1 Age of the Respondents 35
4.1.2 *** of the Respondents 35
4.1.3 Education Level of the Respondents 36
4.1.4 Marital Status 36
4.2 Specific Information 37
4.2.1 Effects of Child Abuse on Academic Performance 37
4.2.2 How Child Abuse Affects Dropout Rate of Students in School 38
4.2.3 Proposed Strategies that Schools can Employ to Curb Child Abuse 41
CHAPTER FIVE 43
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 43
5.0 Introduction 43
5.1 Summary of the findings 43
5.2 Discussion of the Findings 44
5.3 Conclusion 45
5.4 Recommendations 46
REFERENCES 47

LIST OF TABLES & FIGURES
Table 3.1 Target population 32
Table 3.1 Sample size 33
Table 4.1 Age of the Respondents 36
Table 4.2 *** of the Respondents 37
Table 4.3 Education Level of the Respondents 37
Table 4.4 Marital Status 38
Table 4.5 Effects of Child Abuse on Academic Performance 38
Table 4.6 How Child Abuse Affects Dropout Rate of Students in School 40
Figure 4.1 Views of the Pupils on Abuse 41
Table 4.7 Proposed Strategies that Schools can Employ to Curb Child Abuse 42





















ABSTRACT
Child abuse is the physical, ****** or emotional maltreatment or neglect of a child or children. The consequences of child maltreatment can be profound and may endure long after the abuse or neglect occurs. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of child abuse on school performance in Primary Schools in Kapyemit ward, Uasin-Gishu County. The objectives of the study were: To assess the impacts of child abuse on academic performance; to determine the effects of child abuse on schools image, to identify the impacts of child abuse on pupil drop out rate, to investigate the effects of child abuse on pupil transition rate. The study employed a survey study design. The study targeted 160 respondents which includes; 5 Head Teachers, 40 Teachers, 70 Pupils and 35 parents of which a sample size of 48 was obtained from using 30%. Purposive sampling technique was used in selecting the head teachers while simple random sampling technique will be used to select the teachers, Pupils and parents who formed the respondents of the study. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used as data collection instruments. Data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively and presented in form of tables, percentages and frequency. The study helped in the understanding of the effects of child abuse on the school performance, the realization of the roles parents and teachers play in the curbing of child abuse among pupils and raising awareness on the same.

CHAPTER ONE
STUDY OVERVIEW AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.1 Background of the Study
Child abuse is the physical, ****** or emotional maltreatment or neglect of a child or children. The consequences of child maltreatment can be profound and may endure long after the abuse or neglect occurs. The effects can appear in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood, and may affect various aspects of an individual's development (e.g., physical, cognitive, psychological, and behavioral). These effects range in consequence from minor physical injuries, low self-esteem, attention disorders, and poor peer relations to severe brain damage, extremely violent behavior, and death. In extreme cases, child abuse affects the performance of schools in the affected region (Daniel, 1978).
Performance refers to how students deal with their academic studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers. Performance is also the ability of a school to portray a good image which can influence the public (Decastro, 1978). There are several factors that influence the performance of a school at large, however, there is a critical factor that most researchers have avoided to discuss, and child abuse has been a crucial factor that has contributed to children’s dismal performance. Apart from children’s personal intelligence, child abuse is among then key factors contributing to poor performance of learners. Child abuse can lead to school dropping, emotional trauma or can even be fatal, hence destructing or even terminating the educational ambitions of a child. (Harris, 2005)
Worldwide, according to World Health Organization (WHO, 2000) approximately 40 million children are subjected to child abuse each year. According to Human Rights Watch (2001) about 30% of all severely disabled children relegated to special homes in the Ukraine died before they reached 18 years of age. UNICEF estimates that two million children died as a result of armed conflict during a recent 10-year period and that another six million were injured or disabled. In Canada, the U.S. and Mexico, over 6.5 million children annually are exposed to unwanted ****** materials over the internet; over 1.7 million of these report distress over exposure to these materials. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Department for Children and Families (DCF) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child. Child abuse can occur in a child's home, or in the organizations, schools or communities the child interacts with. Each year, approximately one million children around the world are introduced into commercial ****** exploitation despite this problem; these developed countries have put measures to curb the vice. Rehabilitation schools have been formed and introduction of counseling centers as well. Despite the prevalence of child abuse in this developed nations they narrowly affect the academic performance since there are organizations put in place to curb the situation e.g. child associations, guidance and counseling institutions, and school based counseling programs (Giles, 2001)
Concern for victims of child abuse in Africa expressed by the African network of the International Society for The Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) which gave five main presentations of child abuse: child labor, street wandering, ****** abuse, child battering and abandonment (Elma, 1977). Child labor according to the international labor organization (ILO), about 10 million children less than 15years in Africa are in formal employment, working long hours with poor pay and are exposed to substantial health hazards. Wandering of children refers to children, usually unkempt and with delinquent propensities, living rough in town. The reasons for children taking to the street remain poorly understood particularly in relation to factors in the child rather than parental hostility and economic (Dubowitz, 2002)
****** abuse is another. For example, arranged under-age marriages are common in some parts of the continent and doubt was often expressed as to whether a young girl fully gave consent to being betrothed (Galdsone, 1965). Prevalence rates in Africa are very difficult to ascertain because of the fear of disclosure by victims and lack of proper documentation. Most of the girls by reasons of shame fear or surprisingly respect for their usually older perpetrators. Physical battering is also eminent. Physical abuse of children is widely claimed to berate in the third world; however, there are anecdotes from east Africa skeletal frame or localized body areas of all first attendees aged 0-12 years at this hospital during the four-year period 1 January 1987 to 31 December 1990 (Garbarino, 1975). Sixty-nine of these reports reveals evidence of multiple bone fractures wither without evidence of rib or skull fracture. Abandonment of children to roam around the streets in what we call street children is also eminent in Africa, though valid and adequate information on abandonment are difficult to obtain due mainly to failure of offending parents to show up out of guilt, shame, judicial repercussions or a combination of these. However, some euro-American missionaries identified inter alia breech birth. (Erickson, 2003)
Child protection measures in Kenya are currently not implemented effectively and fully (Galdstone, 1965). Compliance with such legislation would increase if the magnitude of the problem and better knowledge about the factors that put children at risk was available. Additionally, involving stakeholders, especially agencies charged with protection, as well as involving affected children, will highlight the issues and thereby promote adherence to protection policies. Kenyan children, child activists and children organizations are pinning their hopes on the implementation of the Children’s Act to improve the lot of the nation’s youth. The Act, which came into effect on 1 March 2002, puts in place full safeguards for the rights of the child. Its passage was a giant stride in harmonizing the national laws with international agreements which Kenya has signed such as the UN Conventions on the Rights of the Child (CRC, 2002)
There is hope that the new legislation will dramatically change the inattention, neglect and abuse towards child rights. The Act outlaws any form discrimination of children, and forbids Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), child prostitution, and child labor, among other forms of abuse. The Children’s Act has immensely improved the lives of many Kenyan children plagued with high illiteracy levels, frequent **** cases and child labor since it guarantees children the right to health and medical care, provision of which is the responsibility of the parents, the extended family and the government (Erickson, 2005).
Cases of child abuse in Uasin-Gishu region have been so eminent in the recent years ((Kenya Media Report, 2004). In the year 2010 and the year 2011, there was a program started to rehabilitate this behavior. This problem is clearly evident when you first arrive in Eldoret town, it is among the towns in the country with the highest number of abandoned children who keep on moving from one Centre to another seeking help from passersby. Parents have developed behaviors of abandoning their children and deliberately sending them to the town so that they can benefit from their borrowing. So to say this has led to child labor in this region. High profile cases of school dropouts have been recorded regarding the environs of this region. Young school children from different locations in Eldoret converge in town to persuade people to offer them financial assistance. Some attend school in numbered days and decide to spend some good number of days out of school.
The communities and societies around tend to assume this situation and term it as norm. A few who might seem concerned lack cooperation from the rest. This has adversely affected the performance of most of schools, hence leading to poor living standards of the people and a poisoned future of a young citizen. The problem has affected learners in regions like many areas in Uasin-Gishu County. It has really affected child development and affected their attendance and performance in school. Little intervention measures has been taken to advocate the holistic development of the children. It was to this reason that the researcher conducted the research in the named above region
1.2 Research Questions
The study was guided by the following questions;
1) What is the effect of child abuse on the academic performance of students in Kapyemit Ward?  
2) What are some of the proposed strategies that schools can employ to curb child abuse?
1.3 Research Objectives
The study was guided by the following research objectives;
1) To identify the effect of child abuse on the academic performance of students in Kapyemit Ward.
2) To identify proposed strategies that can be employed to help curb child abuse.
1.4 Justification of the Study
It is becoming increasingly difficult to separate child abuse prevention into separate categories. For instance, strategies on the societal level include increasing the “value” of children, increasing the economic self-sufficiency of families, discouraging corporal punishment and other forms of violence, making health care more accessible and affordable, expanding and improving coordination of social services, improving the identification and treatment of psychological problems and alcohol and drug abuse, providing more affordable child care and preventing the birth of unwanted children.
Very little analysis has been done to estimate the total cost of preventing child abuse and neglect or the long-term social costs of not preventing it. There is now a move to situate child abuse and neglect within the continuum of intervention which addresses multiple aspects of family behaviors. The efficacy of tackling portions of the problem of child abuse apart from broader societal needs is not known. And, perhaps prevention can only come in tandem with efforts to reduce poverty, improve health care and make children’s issues a national priority. However, despite these constraints, evaluations of prevention programs can be improved by coming to terms with definitions of key varia
Big Virge Nov 2015
Everybody lacks ... something ...
That's a ... Fact ... !!!  
  
So ...
Let me ask you this ... ?
What do ... You Lack ... ?
  
Do you lack ...  
" Common Sense "  
or .... Confidence ... ???
  
or ...  
Do you lack what it takes ... ?
to forsake what you gain ...
from living ... just for money ...
like these ... Corporate Heads ... !!!
  
Well money ...
" Certainly " .... Pays .... !!!
  
But ....
Does not ... " Allay " ...
Unhappy Days ... !!! ...
  
Ask those ... who take ...
"Every Piece" ... of the cake ... !!!
  
If they say ... Their Cash ... !!!
Removes ... Their Pain ...
They're being ... Fake ... !!!
  
Question .... ?
what they say ... ?
  
If they lost their ...
... " Loved Ones ' ...
  
Could their cash ... Replace ... ?
" Loved Ones " ... who'd placed ...
Smiles on ... Their face ... !!! ? !!! ...
  
The answer is ... NO ... !!!
and this ... They Know ... !!!
  
So ...
Do you lack ...  
" Other things " ... ?
that ... make you think ...  
  
" What is The Point !!?!! "
of ... Making Noise ...  
about the way ...
we live ... today ...
  
Well ...  
that's okay ...
it's been ... that way ...
since the ... early days ...
of ... " Shackled Slaves ! " ...
  
Many lack ... the ability ...
to face ... " The Truth " ... !!!
  
Do those ... last words ...
Apply ... to you ... !!?!! ...
  
Well ...  
If they ... DO ... ?!?
  
You're lacking in food ...
You should ... Consume ... !!!
  
These days ...  
I Lack ... " Patience " ...
with those who are ...
..... " Blatant " .....
  
" Ignorant Fools !!! " ...
  
Those I find ...
with ... " Narrow Minds " ...
who choose to ... move ...
in the land ... of the blind ... !!!
  
Those now inclined ...
to ... Ignoring Signs ... ?!?
that .... " Indicate " ....
  
.......... " New " ...........  
" Troubled Times " ... !!! ...
for ... "Our" ...
" Human Kind " ... !!!
  
But ... if we pressed ...  
  
"CLICK" ...........  

Rewind ...  
  
I'm sure we'd find ...
Many Things ... " Replicated " ...
Like ...... " Old Pastimes " ......  
  
Do you lack ...  ?
The Ability ...
to want to ... " Backtrack " ... ?
  
Can I ask you ...  
" Freely " ... ?
  
Why are you ... like that ... ???
  
Afraid of what you'll see ... ??!??
or ... what you'll ... FIND ...
that'll ... EXPOSE ... Lies ...
"Cleverly" ... disGuiSed ...
to keep ... The Truth ...
  
hidden ......
  
..... From .....  
" Enquiring Minds ? " ...
  
  
This seems to be ...
... " Planned " ... !?!
  
to ... Ensure Most ...
..... " Lack " .....  
  
" The Ability " .....
  
to deal with ... FACTS ...  
  
Like .....
Why are women ...
Soooo hard ... to understand ... ???
  
In the very beginning ....
They're ... HARD to ATTRACT ... !!!!!
  
If ....  
You're a man ...
who ... HOLDS ... Your Stance ...
THAT ... You give a **** ...
" About " ... Their Needs ...  
  
while those who ... Lack ...
such ..... " Courtesies " .....  
seem to get ... ***** ...
  
Like .... " Next one please !!! "
  
Girls who ... LACK ...
any ... Common Sense ...
are those ... I don't want ...
inside ..... My Bed ..... !!!!!!!!!!
  
But ....
Hell Yes ... Yeah ...
  
I'll pass through theirs' ... !!!!!
  
Now ....
Hear me out girls ...  
Don't take ... Offence ... !!!!!
  
But ....
Too Many ... of you ...
Pick The  ....
  
"Wrong ****** Men ?!?"  
  
Again and Again .....
Your Case ... CLEARLY ...
Has .... " No Defence " ... !!!!!
  
These days ...
There's a .... LACK ....
of ... " Good ol' ... FUN ... !!!
  
Especially with ...
A ... " Good Woman ! " ...
  
..... " Relationships " .....
seem to end ... So Quick ... !!!
  
Before ... " Love's Able " ...
to get a .... " GRIP !!! " ....
and have a chance to ...
  
........ " Sit " .........
  
at the ... Dinner Table ...
That's ... " REALITY " ...
and is ... " No Fable ! " ...
  
Like .... Cain and Abel ...
  
Things are ... CLEARLY ...
Quite .... " Unstable " .... !!!!!
  
Like ... reception through ...
Those ... " Dodgy Cables ! ' ...
  
No ... MTV ...
or ... Sky TV ...
  
But ...  
Here's the link ...
So take ... THIS IN ... !!!
  
There's now a ... LACK ...
of ..... " RELIABILITY " .....
in how .... People ....
Now Seem ... to be ... !!!!!
  
"I'll call you tonight !"
  
"Cool, that's just fine,
I should be home,
by, half past nine,
don't let me down,
I don't like to be clowned !!!"
  
"Trust me man,
I will ring you !!!"
  
" Haven't heard from  
..... THAT FOOL .....
for a whole week now ...
if he calls me with ...
A Poor excuse ...
My mouth is gonna,
leave him ... Schooled ...
and make him ... frown ...
with the words ... I Choose ... !!! "
  
I just can't stand ....
when people .... LACK ....
  
..... " Reliability " ..... !!!!!!!!!!!
  
or ... is it ... Just Me ... ?!?
  
Asking ... TOO MUCH ... !!!
to hope that .... Some ....
  
"Good Ones" ... are left ... !!!
who are .... " Reliable " ....
from ... Start to End ... !!!
  
and deal in ...  
" Honesty " ...

as well as ...
" Respect " ...
  
People ... You TRULY ..
can call ... Your Friends ... !!!!!
  
Well ....
One thing ... I Don't Lack ... !
is a will to ... " Express " ...
through poetry .... sent ....
to my .... Notepad .... !!! ....
  
So ... now it's time ...
to end ... This Rhyme ...  
  
About ....  
Some Things ....
  
That ... WE ALL ...  
...... " Lack " ...... !!!!!
  
But ....
If you think ....
  
You DON"T ... Lack Anything ... ???  
  
Let me just say this ....
  
You are ... DREAMING ... !!!!!!!!!
  
EVERYONE ...  
Lacks something ....
  
That's just ... FACT ... !!!!!!!
  
So .....
Be HONEST ... with yourself ...
  
What Do ... You ... ?
  
........ Lack ........ ???
We ALL ... Lack something, as the piece says ....Dunno what really inspired this, but, clearly one day, the question entered my mind !
judy smith May 2015
Tired of being called names and listening to complaints from your partner because you snore at night?

But more than that, it is important to keep a check on your snoring as an excess of it can be an indicator of many diseases, one of them being sleep apnea, says Dr Kaushal Sheth, ENT surgeon, "People develop sleep apnea when their airway collapses partially or completely during sleep due to various medical conditions. This causes the oxygen levels in the blood to decrease and can be potentially life threatening when it becomes obstructive sleep apnea."

Elaborating on it further, Dr Jayashree Todkar, bariatric surgeon and obesity consultant says "Snoring is an indication of obstacles in a person's breathing. When excessive fat accumulates around the stomach, the lungs do not get ample space to expand when we inhale oxygen; this in turn leads to obstacles in the process of inhalation-exhalation."

However, there are many myths surrounding snoring which is a very common problem. To sleep better one must get rid of the myths that surround snoring and only accept the facts, says Dr Viranchi Oza, BDS as he gives us a lowdown of some stories around snoring:

Myth: Everybody snores, therefore it's normal.

Fact: Snoring is not a normal condition. Labelling it as 'normal' diminishes the seriousness of the condition. Snoring is not just about annoying your partner, it is a sign that the body is struggling to breathe properly during the night. Snoring on a frequent or regular basis has been associated with hypertension and can also be an indication of sleep apnea (pauses in breathing). Sleep apnea sufferers have been reported to have diminished gray cells in their brains, most likely due to the oxygen deprivation of untreated sleep apnea. If left untreated, sleep apnea increases the risk of cardiovascular disease over time. In addition, insufficient sleep affects growth hormone secretion that is linked to obesity. As the amount of hormone secretion decreases, the chance of weight gain increases.

Myth: Snoring only affects the health of the snorer.

Fact: Snoring doesn't just negatively affect the health of the person snoring, but also the health of the person lying next to them in bed. A typical snorer usually produces a noise that averages around 60 decibels (about the level of vacuum cleaner), but with some people this can reach 80 or even 90 decibels (about the level of an average factory). Sleeping with a partner who snores during the night has been shown to increase the blood pressure in the other person, which may be dangerous for their health in the long term. Snoring also causes the partner to have fragmented sleep and lose up to one hour of sleep

every night.

Myth: Snoring comes from the nose, so if I unclog my nose, my snoring will stop.

Fact: Having a stuffy nose can definitely aggravate snoring and sleep apnea, but in it's not the cause. A recent study showed that undergoing nasal surgery for breathing problems cured sleep apnea in only 10% of patients. Snoring vibrations typically come from the soft palate, which is aggravated by having a small jaw and the tongue falling back. It's a complicated relationship between the nose, the soft palate and the tongue.

Myth: I know I don't snore, or have apnea. I am fine.

Fact: Don't ignore your wife when she tells you that your snoring doesn't let her sleep. When a partner snores it is very difficult for the spouse to sleep. There are people who snore excessively and suffer from sleep apnea, but feel absolutely normal. However, snoring increases their risk of getting a heart attack and stroke. The only definitive way to prove that you don't have sleep apnea is by taking a sleep test. Screening questionnaires like the GASP or the Epworth have shown high reliability in identifying patient risk for sleep apnea.

Myth: If I lose weight, I'll cure myself of sleep apnea.

Fact: Sometimes. It's definitely worth trying, but in general, it's very difficult to lose weight if you have sleep apnea. This is because poor sleep aggravates weight gain by increasing your appetite. Once you're sleeping better, it'll be easier to lose weight. This is the one ingredient with many dietary and weight loss programs that's missing or not stressed at all. It's not enough just to tell people to sleep more.

Myth: Health problems such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and depression have no relation to the amount and quality of a person's sleep.

Fact: More and more scientific studies are showing a correlation between poor quality sleep and insufficient sleep with a variety of diseases. Blood pressure is variable during the sleep cycle, however, interrupted sleep negatively affects the normal variability. Recent studies have shown that nearly 80% cases of hypertension, 60% cases of strokes and 50% cases of heart failures are actually cases of undiagnosed sleep apnea. Research indicates that insufficient sleep impairs the body's ability to use insulin, which can lead to the onset of diabetes. Fragmented sleep can cause a lowered metabolism and increased levels of the hormone Cortisol which results in an increased appetite and a decrease in one's ability to burn calories.

Myth: Daytime sleepiness means a person is not getting enough sleep.

Fact: Do you feel very sleepy even during the day despite the fact that you had a long night of proper sleep? Excessive daytime sleepiness can occur even after a person gets enough sleep. Such sleepiness can be a sign of an underlying medical condition or sleep disorder such as narcolepsy or sleep apnea. Please seek professional medical advice to correctly diagnose the cause of this symptom.

Myth: Getting just one hour less sleep per night than needed will not have any effect on your daytime functioning.

Fact: This lack of sleep may not make you noticeably sleepy during the day. But even if you've got slightly less sleep, it can affect your ability to think properly and respond quickly. It can compromise your cardiovascular health and energy balance as well as the ability to fight infections, particularly if the pattern continues. Lack of sleep has also been associated with road accidents (up to 60% of road accidents involve lack of sleep) and air crashes (Air India Mangalore plane crash in 2010 was due to lack of sleep). Sleeping for less than six hours a night is equivalent to legal levels of alcohol intoxication.

Myth: Sleep apnea occurs only in older, overweight men with big necks.

Fact: Although the stereotypical description does fit people in the extreme end of the spectrum, we now know that even young, thin women that don't snore can have significant obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep apnea begins with jaw structure narrowing and later involves obesity. It's estimated that 90% of women with this condition are not diagnosed. Untreated, it can cause or aggravate weight gain, depression, anxiety, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, heart attack and stroke.

Myth: Snoring can't be treated.

Fact: Have you given up on your snoring thinking that it cannot be treated? There are many different options for treating snoring.

Some treatment options are rather drastic, possibly requiring surgery or prescription drugs, but prior to exploring such options it would be wise to first seek out alternative treatments. You must visit a sleep specialist to get the right diagnosis.

Myth: Extra sleep at night can cure you of problems with excessive daytime fatigue.

Fact: Not only is the quantity of sleep important but also the quality of sleep. Some people sleep eight-nine hours a night but don't feel well rested as the quality of their sleep is poor. A number of sleep disorders and other medical conditions affect the quality of sleep. Sleeping more won't alleviate the daytime sleepiness these disorders or conditions cause. However, many of these disorders or conditions can be treated effectively with changes in behaviour or with medical therapies.

Myth: Insomnia is characterised only by difficulty in falling asleep.

Fact: There are four symptoms usually associated with insomnia:

- Difficulty falling asleep

- Waking up too early and not being able to get back to sleep

- Frequent awakenings

- Waking up feeling tired and not so fresh

Insomnia can also be a symptom of a sleep disorder or other medical, psychological or psychiatric problems. Sometimes, insomnia can really be a case of undiagnosed sleep apnea.Read more here:www.marieaustralia.com/long-formal-dresses | www.marieaustralia.com/bridesmaid-dresses
What is a Father?
Is he a Person?
A Thing?
Or a Feather?
What is his Life?
Is it Carefree and Spontaneous
Or Tormenting and Strife?

Who is he in which a Person could know?
What are his Abilities which only he could show?
Does he Work, for the sake of a Family?
Or sleeps and pigs around, being a Menace and Lazy?

Who could this man be, to the Eyes of Children,
A Hard Rock or a Soft Leaven?

Does he Pile over Everyone
And takes Control?

Is he the Eagle, the Head of the Nest,
Playing a very important Role?

Does he impersonate Father Christmas
With all his Treats and Gifts?

Is he a Lover, with a Strong Heart for *******
Hugging greatly and giving Love-Lifts?

Does he Pray,
Or Face-Religious?

Or a Braver,
Or Spontaneous?

Is he a Disciplinarian
Wherewithin all Members under him
Are tuned to his Command?

Or a Freester,
Who gives his Kids their darling Freedom
Without any Demand?

Does he care,
For the People and Loved Ones around him?

Is he Provocative,
Uncaring for Anyone behind his Dim?

Mostly, he is the Grass,
Herding the Future for his Offspring?

Or the Lamb,
Stubborn and very Unwilling?

And so, whatever he is,
Or does,
A Father is a Father,
Anonymous or Specific
I wouldn't mind.

Just as long as he has
HEART, STRENGTH, FREEDOM and PROSPERITY,
KINDNESS, BRAVE, PROTECTIVE
And RELIABILITY.

I'll be Glad and Content. As any Son should be.
David Moss Jan 2015
This is a virtual representation inside of your mind




Think about that




That voice, this image, reality, space and time




Our five senses  are the only things we truly know

Perspective, perception and persuasion are, therefore

Powers we're all bestowed


Let me give you an example that will explain what I mean





Do not think of an elephant








See?

Can't be unheard or unseen!



Also

When I say tree, what do you see?

Do you see the same as me?

And therefore can it be said that when we see blood

We see the same red?




Funny really

How words can shape what's going on in our head



Actually with that said




Isn't this all going on differently in each of our minds?

And don't these confines then make reality indefinable completely?




I think you see a different red to me


You definitely see a different tree


And this all scares the he'll outta me



Because then conceptual ideals like love, trust and reliability

Are also prone to this harsh subjective reality



So when I say I love you

It can never really mean the same to us two

When I say you have my trust

Is the sincerity of those words enough?

And when we speak of reliability

Is it enough to surpass associative ambiguity?




So like words read upon a page




We subconsciously engage in certain powers we may not fully control

We shape and mold through our will

What we do and do not want to be instilled onto others and ourselves

For the rest of our lives




Humbling thoughts right?






Stop thinking of that for second though
And just breathe in nice and slow










So?

Well you are now manually breathing
Before that you weren't really conscious of it though!

Makes you really wonder how much we miss, the deeper we go



Like what is actually real, and just in our head
And is their a really difference as I've previously forsaid?



We are getting pretty deep here now


But do you think there's further to go?


Glad you asked, well, you didn't ask, I insisted


......Anyhow, did you know



That if you copy someone's stance


Your influence towards them

Can greatly enhance?

We call this social mirroring.


Such a funny thing

Don't you think?

How much we can tell from

Arms crossed, sagging shoulders, or a frantic eye blink


And do not under any circumstance, itch your scalp when i say


HEAD LICE



****. Sorry. That wasn't nice

Suffice to say, I am ******* with your mind



But not without a point you shouldn't fear

I mean, Is this all unsettling to hear?

How susceptible you and i might be to our influential peers?


It should cause some alarming fright

To know that someone out there might

Be attempting to control others with thoughts

Right?


This sentence is brought to you by Coca-Cola. Drink Coca-Cola. Day and night


With perhaps insight and upper hand as to how we think and act?


Facebook would like to access your personal details, to purely, only, ever, gather public feedback


Is the fear we face on a daily basis based on legitimate status of what is really happening?

Or perhaps it's the stasis state easiest placed upon a person to instill a certain type of mega-mental social conditioning?



...... Well?
What do YOU, truly think? And was that thought yours to begin?!



And are you listening yet? Is what I am saying starting to show?


And is their deeper you and i can go?


It's okay though


No need to panic.


Whatever you do, do not become manic with and start to fret


Do not start questioning every single iota of intent


Do not grow an unjust sense of what is on the surface being said


And what others really meant


This will almost certainly grow unkempt paranoia you will one day truly dread



Instead. And Please I beg. instead.

Keep this solemn sentence within your head.


You.
Are.
In.
Control.



Despite whatever comes your way

You choose the toll it takes upon you

Second by second, hour by hour, day by day

Our minds infinitely powerful, with potential to grow


Just take hold of that, tightly, and never let it go

Let that one seed of wisdom, sink in, and let it nurture and grow



And one day

Potentially



You might just see the same tree as me, mentally


Or at least we can mount makeshift metaphysical bridges from these branches


Reach out and say 'Hey. I finally see what you see. I get you and you get me'

For fear is the sharp saw that cuts down those trees of understanding

And what I am asking isn't really that demanding

We don't exactly have to agree to see the same blood red
But at least one day i hope it can be said
That despite it's different hues, it needn't be shed?

Cause one day I hope to say 'I love you'
And you know exactly what that word meant

Just as much as when someone trust's me
It was understood as best as can be

Because i want reliability to be the biggest tree in my mind
And despite fear coming around to cut it down

Hope is my dirt, my water and my sunshine


Cause really, if we can't understand each other conceptually

Where's the hope for this reality?



But then, again

With all this said


It doesn't matter in the end and in our heads


Because all of this is a virtual representation inside our minds, right?


Our voice, our image, our reality, our space and time


Our five senses we all share, are the only things we know


But until we understand others



It's all we'll ever have to show
Kassiani  Dec 2011
Hera
Kassiani Dec 2011
I exist in a world of careful structure
Taken out of Chaos and made habitable
By strict planning and strict ruling—
Structure is imperative
Order keeps us going
Deviations are not allowed

If you wish to live in my world
You must learn to follow rules

Reliability is key
Being dependable as the rising sun
Predictable as a new moon
Always infallible

Disappointments are not tolerated
Insufficient will be cast away
Deviations are not allowed
So if you can’t be trusted
Then you don’t belong here

There will be order in my house
For in games of two, there can be no others

There
Are
Rules
And they exist to keep us out of Chaos
They exist because structure
Ensures that we don’t collapse
So when your eyes are wandering
You are marking yourself as inconstant
Dangerous
Unacceptable
And I will stop at nothing
Until you’ve suffered for every sweetness you’ve laid at another’s feet
I will stop at nothing
Until you’ve learned that you must always choose me

I will burn you for every betrayal
And some will call me jealous
Written 12/23/11
Alexander T  Oct 2018
reliability
Alexander T Oct 2018
why do I keep relying on people
it seems like every time I do
its just another letdown
another heartbreak

tell me tomorrow
do I believe that too
ha, you know I do

just keep on telling me those lies
watch me fade away
out of existence
into oblivion

watch me go
watch me leave
pretend to care
this is so unfair

I will stay at your knees
believe everything you say
be your slave
as I fade away

I fall to you
I love you

and you destroy me

I do all my good
for you
keep pushing me away
I will stay for you

until I am gone
I am at your quarter

I am all yours
until my forever doesnt exist

your words are like a knife
sharp and deadly
but at the same time
safe and comforting

so I will say at your mercy
I will be yours

when I am gone
please forget me
I am not worth remembering
I am nothing

a ghost thats what I am

I am yours until my heart is blackened
decayed
destroyed

I will give you my all
and I return
I will have nothing
many months ago...
JadedSoul  Aug 2014
In the Car
JadedSoul Aug 2014
Rain drops run like tears down the window
as my Car speeds past another Lay-by
lamenting those past bring no solace
at the horror of those yet to come

ahead an old man struggles
his Car is aged, broken down
every mile a small mercy
as desperately he hopes to carry on

begrudging my car’s reliability,
I look in sadness as we pass him,
he looks wistfully
as the sun dances on my shiny paint

how I wish I could stop!
give him my engine!
transfer my fuel!
maybe give him my tires!

the Road is yet too long
I have no strength for it
no yearning to drive another Mile
best to give to those who want
that they may travel past and smile
Life and death
Don’t be fooled regarding one’s tongue,
for it has the power of life and death.
Before doubting these words of wisdom,
now pay attention and catch your breath…

before any more idle words touch the ground.
We are accountable for everything we say;
Therefore, remember to think before speaking,
since our reckonings will come on Judgment Day.

Consciously refrain from speaking evil curses,
knowing that God’s presence surrounds each soul.
Undisciplined tongues unwittingly spew their venom
and cause unseen damage with poisonous control.

A perverse tongue easily breaks the human spirit
and keeps evil, generational curses flowing.
Plentiful sins roll off the tongue in the forms of:
Gossiping, Tattle-telling, Slander, Lying and Boasting.

Instead, give praise concerning the good things of God;
speak life into situations, since healing can be attained.
the reliability of The Word can be assured, for…
its promises insure that ours lives can be sustained.

  

Author Notes:

Loosely based on:
Prov 18:21; 1 Cor 4:20; Deu 32:47; 2 Pet 2:3; 1 Sam 3:19; Psa 12:6
Lev 19:16; Mark 4:14; Prov 15:4, 21:23; Jam 3:1-18; 2 Cor 5:10

Learn more about me and my poetry at:
http://www.squidoo.com/book-isbn-1419650513/

By Joseph J. Breunig 3rd, © 2012, All rights reserved.
Irial PR Foy May 2016
Part One

Mercury is in retrograde.
And people who do not believe in astrology
Quake in their collective boots.
Mercury enters the living room and kicks the dog,
Flops onto your couch and tells you to get them whatever they need.
You listen, Mercury is, after all, in retrograde.
They will travel across the sky backwards,
Throwing off your life in all of their
Roman god of thieves glory,
Until you give them what they want.
Mercury switches between burning loved ones and freezing them,
With a sunrise and sunset sense of reliability.
With no atmosphere to keep themselves warm.
They don sweaters in July to hide their withering orbit
And even if mercury is in retrograde,
It seems they are not moving.

Part Two

Eris rotates the sun,
Brings an apple to a wedding party
She was never invited to
The apple reads, “To The Prettiest One”
And starts the first war among men.
And Eris claims she meant no harm.
Cries on her mother’s lap,
Aging a year every 88 days.
Her mother covers her in a cloak dark as night.
Her mother is the night.
Eris rotates, stares at Mercury,
Breathes Cigarette smoke deep into her own lungs,
Blows it in Mercury’s face.
Mercury is trying to quit
Eris does not care.
Eris wants to see Chaos.
Wonders why no one asked her who the stupid apple was for.
She thinks humans are stupid.
We are, she’s never wrong.
She dresses herself in her best to come see you at work
Every Sunday like a religion.
Baggy jeans, and a not so clean t-shirt,
Makes Mercury mad that she forgets the wig every time.
Mercury does not want to see the hair Eris has pulled out after every cigarette
Like a body count.

Part Three

Mars was born from pretty.
Yet he seems to be anything but pretty.
He’s going to war with everyone,
He burned a boys shoes once,
A boy who dared to love the solar system,
To accept the sun, and every planet and satellite
Like siblings.
Mars is fighting the stars,
He wants to land among them, and shoot all of them out like light bulbs.
Mars wants to protect his solar system from the stars,
From every boy.
To keep the sun burning for eternity.
Eris reminds him the sun will burn out, eventually,
And Mercury hides behind your couch.
Mars lashes out with the sun,
Breaks the sun’s knuckles off eris’s face,
Sets your carpet on fire.
Mercury starts to cry, notices the bruising on the sun,
Tries to patch it’s sunspots.

Part Four

Venus tries to mediate.
In all of her fifties house wife,
Goddess of beauty perfection.
She tries to keep the meteors from hitting all her sun-mates.
She is tired.
She wants to live in a kitchen in front of her bay windows
With her favorite book,
Watching the sea foam and hoping it with birth her a companion.
She can not handle having Eris burning the sun’s lungs,
Or Mercury wanting to die.
Or Mars being angry,
Much longer.
They set her Sunday best on fire.
A dress with petticoats and flowers.
Her white shoes she keeps perfectly polished for tea with her mother.
Venus dresses the sun in a matching dress made of silk,
And rubs rouge on its cheeks,
Like her own little baby doll
And cries over her own infertility.
Mercury consoles her,
tells her she might not meet her purpose
Of love, and ***, and motherhood,
But that they will love her at least.
Eris tells her “Who needs that crap?”
And flicks a cigarette out on her own arm.
Mars gets angry at her crying.
Slaps her with the sun.
Singes her perfectly smooth cheek.
She cries more.

Part Five

Mars storms out, burns your shoes again.
Eris lights up cigarettes like birthdays and lovers
Off of Mar’s fires,
Venus tries to put them out with her tears,
Her bay-window-kitchen-room-favorite-book-dreams
And her battered, childless body,
And Mercury falls further into retrograde.

— The End —