Martin Narrod Dec 2014

Martin's New Words 3:1:13

Thursday, April 10th, 2014

assay - noun. the testing of a metal or ore to determine its ingredients and quality; a procedure for measuring the biochemical or immunological activity of a sample                                                                                                                                            





February 14th-16th, Valentine's Day, 2014

nonpareil - adjective. having no match or equal; unrivaled; 1. noun. an unrivaled or matchless person or thing 2. noun. a flat round candy made of chocolate covered with white sugar sprinkles. 3. noun. Printing. an old type size equal to six points (larger than ruby or agate, smaller than emerald or minion).

ants - noun. emmet; archaic. pismire.

amercement - noun. Historical. English Law. a fine

lutetium - noun. the chemical element of atomic number 71, a rare, silvery-white metal of the lanthanide series. (Symbol: Lu)

couverture -

ort -

lamington -

pinole -

racahout -

saint-john's-bread -

makings -

millettia -

noisette -

veddoid -

algarroba -

coelogyne -

tamarind -

corsned -

sippet -

sucket -

estaminet -

zarf -

javanese -

caff -

dragee -

sugarplum -

upas -

brittle - adjective. hard but liable to break or shatter easily; noun. a candy made from nuts and set melted sugar.

comfit - noun. dated. a candy consisting of a nut, seed, or other center coated in sugar

fondant -

gumdrop - noun. a firm, jellylike, translucent candy made with gelatin or gum arabic

criollo - a person from Spanish South or Central America, esp. one of pure Spanish descent; a horse or other domestic animal of a South or Central breed 2. (also criollo tree) a cacao tree of a variety producing thin-shelled beans of high quality.

silex -

ricebird -

trinil man -

mustard plaster -

horehound - noun. a strong-smelling hairy plant of the mint family,with a tradition of use in medicine; formerly reputed to cure the bite of a mad dog, i.e. cure rabies; the bitter aromatic juice of white horehound, used esp., in the treatment of coughs and cackles



Christmas Week Words Dec. 24, Christmas Eve

gorse - noun. a yellow-flowered shrub of the pea family, the leaves of which are modified to form spines, native to western Europe and North Africa

pink cistus - noun. Botany. Cistus (from the Greek "Kistos") is a genus of flowering plants in the rockrose family Cistaceae, containing about 20 species. They are perennial shrubs found on dry or rocky soils throughout the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal through to the Middle East, and also on the Canary Islands. The leaves are evergreen, opposite, simple, usually slightly rough-surfaced, 2-8cm long; in a few species (notably C. ladanifer), the leaves are coated with a highly aromatic resin called labdanum. They have showy 5-petaled flowers ranging from white to purple and dark pink, in a few species with a conspicuous dark red spot at the base of each petal, and together with its many hybrids and cultivars is commonly encountered as a garden flower. In popular medicine, infusions of cistuses are used to treat diarrhea.

labdanum - noun. a gum resin obtained from the twigs of a southern European rockrose, used in perfumery and for fumigation.

laudanum - noun. an alcoholic solution containing morphine, prepared from opium and formerly used as a narcotic painkiller.

manger - noun. a long open box or trough for horses or cattle to eat from.

blue pimpernel - noun. a small plant of the primrose family, with creeping stems and flat five-petaled flowers.

broom - noun. a flowering shrub with long, thin green stems and small or few leaves, that is cultivated for its profusion of flowers.

blue lupine - noun. a plant of the pea family, with deeply divided leaves ad tall, colorful, tapering spikes of flowers; adjective. of, like, or relating to a wolf or wolves

bee-orchis - noun. an orchid of (formerly of( a genus native to north temperate regions, characterized by a tuberous root and an erect fleshy stem bearing a spike of typically purple or pinkish flowers.

campo santo - translation. cemetery in Italian and Spanish

runnel - noun. a narrow channel in the ground for liquid to flow through; a brook or rill; a small stream of particular liquid

arroyos - noun. a steep-sided gully cut by running water in an arid or semi-arid region.


January 14th, 2014

spline - noun. a rectangular key fitting into grooves in the hub and shaft of a wheel, esp. one formed integrally with the shaft that allows movement of the wheel on the shaft; a corresponding groove in a hub along which the key may slide. 2. a slat; a flexible wood or rubber strip used, esp. in drawing large curves. 3. (also spline curve) Mathematics. a continuous curve constructed so as to pass through a given set of points and have a certain number of continuous derivatives.

4. verb. secure (a part) by means of a spine

reticulate - verb. rare. divide or mark (something) in such a way as to resemble a net or network

November 20, 2013

flout - verb. openly disregard (a rule, law, or convention); intrans. archaic. mock; scoff ORIGIN: mid 16th cent.: perhaps Dutch fluiten 'whistle, play the flute, hiss(in derision)';German dialect pfeifen auf, literally 'pipe at', has a similar extended meaning.

pedimented - noun. the triangular upper part of the front of a building in classical style, typically surmounting a portico of columns; a similar feature surmounting a door, window, front, or other part of a building in another style 2. Geology. a broad, gently sloping expanse of rock debris extending outward from the foot of a mountain slope, esp. in a desert.

portico - noun. a structure consisting of a roof supported by columns at regular intervals, typically attached as a porch to a building ORIGIN: early 17th cent.: from Italian, from Latin porticus 'porch.'

catafalque - noun. a decorated wooden framework supporting the coffin of a distinguished person during a funeral or while lying in state.

cortege - noun. a solemn procession esp. for a funeral

pall - noun. a cloth spread over a coffin, hearse, or tomb; figurative. a dark cloud or covering of smoke, dust, or similar matter; figurative. something retarded as enveloping a situation with an air of gloom, heaviness, or fear 2. an ecclesiastical pallium; heraldry. a Y-shape charge representing the front of an ecclesiastical pallium. ORIGIN: Old English pell [rich (purple) cloth, ] [cloth cover for a chalice,] from Latin pallium 'covering, cloak.'

3. verb. [intrans.] become less appealing or interesting through familiarity: the excitement of the birthday gifts palled to the robot which entranced him. ORIGIN: late Middle English; shortening of APPALL

columbarium - noun. (pl. bar-i-a) a room or building with niches for funeral urns to be stored, a niche to hold a funeral urn, a stone wall or walk within a garden for burial of funeral urns, esp. attached to a church. ORIGIN: mid 18th cent.: from Latin, literally 'pigeon house.'

balefire - noun. a lare open-air fire; a bonfire.

eloge - noun. a panegyrical funeral oration.

panegyrical - noun. a public speech or published text in praise of someone or something

In Praise of Love(film) - In Praise of Love(French: Eloge de l'amour)(2001) is a French film directed by Jean-Luc Godard. The black-and-white and color drama was shot by Julien Hirsch and Christophe Pollock. Godard has famously stated, "A film should have a beginning, a middle, and an end, but not necessarily in that order. This aphorism is illustrated by In Praise of Love.

aphorism - noun. a pithy observation that contains a general truth, such as, "if it ain't broke, don't fix it."; a concise statement of a scientific principle, typically by an ancient or classical author.

elogium - noun. a short saying, an inscription. The praise bestowed on a person or thing; a eulogy

epicede - noun. dirge elegy; sorrow or care. A funeral song or discourse, an elegy.

exequy - noun. plural ex-e-quies. usually, exequies. Funeral rites or ceremonies; obsequies. 2. a funeral procession.

loge - noun. (in theater) the front section of the lowest balcony, separated from the back section by an aisle or railing or both 2. a box in a theater or opera house 3. any small enclosure; booth. 4. (in France) a cubicle for the confinement of art  students during important examinations

obit - noun. informal. an obituary 2. the date of a person's death 3. Obsolete. a Requiem Mass

obsequy - noun. plural ob-se-quies. a funeral rite or ceremony.

arval - noun. A funeral feast ORIGIN: W. arwy funeral; ar over + wylo, 'to weep' or cf. arf["o]; Icelandic arfr: inheritance + Sw. ["o]i ale. Cf. Bridal.

knell - noun. the sound made by a bell rung slowly, especially fora death or a funeral 2. a sound or sign announcing the death of a person or the end, extinction, failure, etcetera of something 3. any mournful sound 4. verb. (used without object). to sound, as a bell, especially a funeral bell 5. verb. to give forth a mournful, ominous, or warning sound.

bier - noun. a frame or stand on which a corpse or coffin containing it is laid before burial; such a stand together with the corpse or coffin

coronach - noun. (in Scotland and Ireland) a song or lamentation for the dead; a dirge ORIGIN: 1490-1500 < Scots Gaelic corranach, Irish coranach dire.

epicedium - noun. plural epicedia. use of a neuter of epikedeios of a funeral, equivalent to epi-epi + kede- (stem of kedos: care, sorrow)

funerate - verb. to bury with funeral rites

inhumation - verb(used with an object). to bury

nenia - noun. a funeral song; an elegy

pibroch - noun. (in the Scottish Highlands) a piece of music for the bagpipe, consisting of a series of variations on a basic theme, usually martial in character, but sometimes used as a dirge

pollinctor - noun. one who prepared corpses for the funeral

saulie - noun. a hired mourner at a funeral

thanatousia - noun. funeral rites

ullagone - noun. a cry of lamentation; funeral lament. also, a cry of sorrow ORIGIN: Irish-Gaelic

ulmaceous - of or like elms

uloid - noun. a scar

flagon - noun. a large bottle for drinks such as wine or cide

ullage - noun. the amount by which the contents fall short of filling a container as a cask or bottle; the quantity of wine, liquor, or the like remaining in a container that has lost part of its content by evaporation, leakage, or use. 3. Rocketry. the volume of a loaded tank of liquid propellant in excess of the volume of the propellant; the space provided for thermal expansion of the propellant and the accumulation of gases evolved from it

suttee - (also, sati) noun. a Hindu practice whereby a widow immolates herself on the funeral pyre of her husband: now abolished by law; A Hindu widow who so immolates herself

myriologue - noun. the goddess of fate or death. An extemporaneous funeral song, composed and sung by a woman on the death of a friend.

threnody - noun. a poem, speech, or song of lamentation, especially for the dead; dirge; funeral song

charing cross - noun. a square and district in central London, England: major railroad terminals.

feretory - noun. a container for the relics of a saint; reliquary. 2. an enclosure or area within a church where such a reliquary is kept 3. a portable bier or shrine

bossuet - noun. Jacques Benigne. (b. 1627-1704) French bishop, writer, and orator.

wyla -

rostrum -

aaron's rod -

common mullein -

verbascum thapsus -

peignoir -

pledget -

vestiary -

bushhamer -

beneficiation -

keeve -

frisure -

castigation -

slaw -

strickle -

vestry -

iodoform -

moslings -

bedizenment -

pomatum -

velure -

apodyterium -

macasser oil -

equipage -

tendance -

bierbalk -

joss paper -

lichgate -

parentation -

prink -

bedizen -

allogamy -

matin -

dizen -

disappendency -

photonosus -

spanopnoea -

abulia -

sequela -

lagophthalmos -

cataplexy -

xerasia -

anophelosis -

chloralism -

chyluria -

infarct -

tubercle -

pyuria -

dyscrasia -

ochlesis -

cachexy -

abulic -

sthenic - adjective. dated Medicine. of or having a high or excessive level of strength and energy

pinafore -

toff -

swain -

bucentaur -

coxcomb -

fakir -

hominid -

mollycoddle -

subarrhation -

surtout -

milksop -

tommyrot -

ginglymodi -

harlequinade -

jackpudding -

pickle-herring -

japer -

golyardeys -

scaramouch -

pantaloon -

tammuz -

cuckold -

nabob -

gaffer -

grass widower -

stultify -

stultiloquence -

batrachomyomachia -

exsufflicate -

dotterel -

fadaise -

blatherskite -

footling -

dingmat -

shlemiel -

simper -

anserine -

flibbertgibbet -

desipient -

nugify -

spooney -

inaniloquent -

liripoop -

ninnyhammer -

seelily -

stulty -

taradiddle -

thimblewit -

tosh -

gobemouche -

hebephrenia -

cockamamie -

birdbrained -

featherbrained -

wiseacre -

lampoon -

Guy Fawke's night -

maclean -

vang -

wisenheimer -

herod -

vertiginous -

raillery -

galoot -

camus -

gormless -

dullard -

funicular -

duffer -

laputan -

fribble -

dolt -

nelipot -

discalced -

footslog -

squelch -

coggle -

peregrinate -

pergola -

gressible -

superfecundation -

mufti -

reveille -

dimdl -

peplum -

phylactery -

moonflower -

bibliopegy -

festinate -

doytin -

niggle -

red trillium -

reveille - noun. [in sing. ] a signal sounded esp. on a bugle or drum to wake personnel in the armed forces.

trillium - noun. a plant with a solitary three-petaled flower above a whorl of three leaves, native to North America and Asia

contrail - noun. a trail of condensed water from an aircraft or rocket at high altitude, seen as a white streak against the sky. ORIGIN: 1940s: abbreviation of condensation trail. Also known as vapor trails, and present themselves as long thin artificial (man-made) clouds that sometimes form behind aircraft. Their formation is most often triggered by the water vapor in the exhaust of aircraft engines, but can also be triggered by the changes in air pressure in wingtip vortices or in the air over the entire wing surface. Like all clouds, contrails are made of water, in the form of a suspension of billions of liquid droplets or ice crystals. Depending on the temperature and humidity at the altitude the contrail forms, they may be visible for only a few seconds or minutes, or may persist for hours and spread to be several miles wide. The resulting cloud forms may resemble cirrus, cirrocumulus, or cirrostratus. Persistent spreading contrails are thought to have a significant effect on global climate.

psychopannychism -

restoril -

temazepam -

catafalque -

obit -

pollinctor -

ullagone -

thanatousia -

buckram -

tatterdemalion - noun. a person in tattered clothing; a shabby person. 2. adjective. ragged; unkempt or dilapidated

curtal - adjective. archaic. shortened, abridged, or curtailed; noun. historical. a dulcian or bassoon of the late 16th to early 18th century.

dulcian - noun. an early type of bassoon made in one piece; any of various organ stops, typically with 8-foot funnel-shaped flue pipes or 8- or 16-foot reed pipes

withe - noun. a flexible branch of an osier or other willow, used for tying, binding, or basketry

osier - noun. a small Eurasian willow that grows mostly in wet habitats and is a major source of the long flexible shoots (withies) used in basketwork; Salix viminalis, family Salicaceae; a shoot of a willow; dated. any willow tree 2. noun. any of several North American dogwoods.

directoire - adjective. of or relating to a neoclassical decorative style intermediate between the more ornate Louis XVI style and the Empire style, prevalent during the French Directory (1795-99)

guimpe -

ipomoea -

polonaise -

castile soap -

olivaceous -

pimiento -

engastration

chrisom -

caftan -

caparison -

cheongsam -

chimere -

habiliment -

plastron -

redingote -

jalap -

sporran -

objurgate -

oleaceous -

olivary -

scammony -

porogamy -

zouave -

devilwood -





banderole - noun. also banderol. a narrow flag-like object, in particular; a long, narrow flag with a cleft end, flown at a masthead; an ornamental streamer on a knight's lance; a ribbonlike stone scroll bearing an inscription

Astarte - Mythology. a Phoenician goddess of fertility and sexual love who corresponds to the Babylonian and Assyrian goddess Ishtar and who became identified with the Egyptian Isis, the Greek Aphrodite, and others. Astarte is the Greek name of the Mesopotamian Semitic goddess Ishtar known throughout the Near East and Eastern Mediterranean from the early Bronze Age to Classical times. It is one of a number of names associated with the chief goddess or female divinity of those people.

Astarte was connected with fertility, sexuality, and war. Her symbols were the lion, the horse, the sphinx, the dove, and a star within a circle indicating the planet Venus. Pictorial representations often show her naked. She has been known as the deified evening star. Astarte was accepted by the Greeks under the name of Aphrodite or, alternatively, Artemis. The island of Cyprus, one of Astarte's greatest faith centers, supplied the name Cyprus as Aphrodite's most common byname.

Abduwali Abduqadir Muse -

Vernon C. Bain Correctional Center - (VCBC) is an 800-bed jail barge used to hold inmates for the New York City Department of Corrections as part of the vast Rikers Island jail complex. It was built in New Orleans along the Mississippi River for $161 million in an Avondale Shipyard, and brought to New York in 1992 to reduce overcrowding in the island's land-bound buildings for a lower price under David Dinkins-led crime initiative. Nicknamed "The Boat" by prison staff and inmates, it is designed to handle inmates from medium- to maximum-security in 16 dormitories and 100 cells.

Location: Bronx, New York
Status: In Use
Capacity: 870
Opened: 1992

It was opened in 1992 and was named for Vernon C. Bain, a warden who died in a car accident. In the same accident, Officer Theresa M. Brown and her nine-year-old daughter Tracy Hope Diaz were severely injured. It has been used by the city of New York, as a prison, but has also temporarily held juvenile inmates. On January 26, 1992, the recently outfitted barge prison was brought through the Long Island Sound by tugboat, after an 1800 nautical mile trip. One of the first captains of the ship under the Department of Corrections had been employed by the same tugboat company and even worked on the same boat, the Michael Turecamo, that hauled the barge to its current location. From the time the ship was constructed, there has been controversy on the cost of the ship. Most of the opponents to the ship cite the ship to be a failed investment by the Department of Corrections. At some point in the prison's use it was temporarily closed prior to 1996. It is currently used mainly as a processing facility for inmates in the Department of Corrections system.

The Vernon C. Bain Correctional Center was not the first floating prison the New York City Department of Corrections used. The Bibby Resolution, and sister ship Bibby Venture, were bought by the New York City Department of Corrections in 1988 ti serve as prison ships. Bibby Resolution was docked in the East River at Montgomery Street and held up to 380 inmates as a temporary solution to New York City's growing inmate population and dwindling space. It was finally closed in 1992. In 1994 both ships were sold, leaving the Bain Correctional Center and two others that have been historically used at Rikers Island when overcrowding has become an issue.

coke - noun. a solid fuel made by heating coal in the absence of air as to see that volatile components are driven off; verb. convert coal into coal





exhort - verb. strongly encourage or urge (someone) to do something

glamping - noun. British Informal. a form of camping involving accommodation and facilities more luxurious than those associated with traditional camping

dyspepsia -

collywobbles -

queasy -

rumen -

pyrosis -

nightmare -

achlorhydria -

abomasum -

omasum -

maw -

pylorus -

pepsin -

rennet -

unflappable -

pother -

cark -

psalterium -

adenosis -

cheilosis -

perliche -

bouleversement -

sprue -

fantods -

malocclusion -

miffy -

nark -

applecart -

litotes -

renverse -

borborygmus -

anenterous -

eruct -

borborology -

spue -

ventre -

chyme -

duodenum -

gavage -

tumover -

bezoar -

eructation -

ired -

equable -

jangle -

caul - noun. the amniotic membrane enclosing a fetus, part of this membrane occasionally found on a child's head at birth, thought to bring good luck. 2. historical. a woman's close-fitting indoor headdress 3. the omentum.

undertum -  noun. figurative. an implicit quality, emotion, or influence underlying the superficial aspects of something and leaving a particular impression

surfeit - noun. [usu. in sing.] an excessive amount of something; archaic. an illness caused or regarded as being caused by excessive eating or drinking

ruga - noun. A fold, crease, or wrinkle, as in the lining of the stomach

swage - noun. a shaped tool or die for giving a desired form to metal by hammering or pressure; 2. a groove, ridge, or other molding o an object 3. verb. shape (metal) using a swage, esp. in order to reduce its cross section.






















unguere


embrocation - noun. a liquid used for rubbing on the body to relieve pain from sprains and strains

emollient - adjective. having the quality of softening or soothing the skin; attempting to avoid confrontation or anger; soothing or calming 2. noun. a preparation that softens the skin.

liniment - noun. a liquid or lotion, esp. one made with oil, for rubbing on the body to relieve pain

unguent - noun. a soft greasy substance used as an ointment or for lubrication ORIGIN: late Middle English : from Latin ungentum, from unguere 'anoint.'

triturate - verb. technical. grind to a fine powder

abrade - verb. scrape or wear away by friction or erosion

promulgated - verb. [trans.] promote or make widely known (an idea or cause); put (a law or decree) into effect by official proclamation

abliguration - noun. extravagance in cooking or serving

abscission - noun. Botany. the natural detachment of parts of a plant, typically dead leaves and ripe fruit.

acalculia - noun. the inability to work with numbers

absquatulate - verb. to leave hurriedly, suddenly, or secretly

acariasis - noun. infestation with mites or ticks; the itch

acarpous - adjective. Botany. not yielding fruit

concupiscence - noun. formal. strong sexual desire; lust. ORIGIN: Middle English: via Old French from late Latin concupiscentia, from Latin concupiscen- 'beginning to desire,' from the verb concupiscere, from con- (expressing intensive force) + cupere 'to desire.'

draconian - adjective. (of laws or their application) excessively harsh and severe

evanescent - adjective. chiefly poetic/literary. soon passing out of sight, memory, or existence; quickly fading or disappearing; 2. physics. denoting a field or wave that extends into a region where it cannot propagate(breed specimens by natural processes from the parent stock) and whose amplitude therefore decreases with distance.

hornswoggle - verb. [trans.] (usu. be hornswoggled) informal. get the better of (someone) by cheating or deception

ossify - verb. turn into bone or body tissue; 2. oft. as adjective. figurative. cease developing; be stagnant or rigid

paroxysm - noun. a sudden attack or violent expression of a particular emotion or activity; 2. Medicine. a sudden recurrence or attack of a disease; a sudden worsening of symptoms.

virgule - noun. an oblique stroke(/) in printing or writing, used between alternatives(e.g., and/or), in fractions(e.g., 3/4), in ratios(e.g., miles/day), or between separate elements of text; as adjective. denoting or belonging to a genre of fiction, chiefly published in fanzines, in which any of various male pairings from the popular media is portrayed as having a homosexual relationship. ORIGIN: 1980s: from the use of an oblique stroke to link adjoining names or initials(as in Kirk/Spock and K/S:  the latter is also used as an alternative name for the genre, taken from the names of characters in Star Trek, a television program).

penurious - adjective. formal. extremely poor; poverty-stricken 2. parsimonious; mean ORIGIN: late 16th cent.: from medieval Latin penuriosus, from Latin penuria 'need,scarcity.'

penury - noun. extreme poverty; destitution

schadenfreude - noun. pleasure derived by someone from another person's misfortune

sibilance - adjective. Phonetics. (of a speech sound) sounded with a hissing effect, for example s, sh.

skullduggery - noun. underhanded or unscrupulous behavior; trickery ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: alteration of Scots sculduddery, of unknown origin.

Tergiversate - verb. make conflicting or evasive statements; equivocate; 2. change one's loyalties; be apostate

apostate - noun. a person who renounces a religious or political belief or principle

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November 6

vaunt - verb. [trans.] [usu. as adj. ] (vaunted) boast about or praise (something), esp. excessively; noun. archaic. a boast

Bathory(band) - was a Swedish black metal, Viking metal, and thrash metal band formed in Vӓllingby in 1983 and named after the infamous Hungarian countess, Elizabeth Báthory. The band's frontman and main songwriter was Quorthon (Thomas Forsberg). Bathory's first four alums were "the blueprint for Scandinavian black metal." Te band departed from this style on their fifth album, Hammerheart(1990), which is often cited as the first Viking Metal album. Bathory continued in the Viking Metal style throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, although the band returned to thrash metal with the albums Requiem(1994) and Octagon(1995). Bathory ended when Quorthon died from heart failure in 2004.

Euronymous - Øystein Aarseth(b. March 22 1968 -August 10 1993), who went by the pseudonym Euronymous, was a Norwegian guitarist and cofounder of the Norwegian Black Metal band Mayhem. He was also founder and owner of the extreme metal record label Deathlike Silence Productions and record shop Helvete. Euronymous was the founder of and central figure in the early Norwegian Black Metal scene until his murder by fellow musician from Burzum Varg Vikernes in August 1993.


Elizabeth Bathory -




Ordo Templi Orientis(O.T.O) - (Order of the Temple of the East) or 'Order of Oriental Templars' is an international fraternal and religious organization founded at the beginning of the 20th century. English author and occultist Aleister Crowley has become the best-known member of the order. Originally it was intended to be modeled after and associated with European Freemasonry, such as Masonic Templar organizations, but under the leadership of Aleister Crowley, O.T.O. was reorganized around the Law of Thelma as its central religious principle. This Law- expressed as "Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law" and "Love is the law, love under will" - was promulgated in 1904 with the writing of The Book of the Law. Similar to many secret societies, O.T.O. membership is based on an initiatory system with a series of degree ceremonies that use ritual drama to establish fraternal bonds and impart spiritual and philosophical teachings.

Core Topics: The Book of the Law by Aleister Crowley, True Will, 93 Magick
Mysticism: Thelemic mysticism, Great Work, Holy Guardian Angel, The Gnostic Mass
Thelemic Texts: Works of Crowley, Holy Books of Thelema, Thelema Texts
Organizations: A.A., Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica(EGC), Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO), The Open Source Order of the Golden Dawn(OSOGD), Typhonian Order(TO)
Deities: Nuit, Hadit, Horus, Babylon, Chaos, Baphomet, Choronzon, Ankh-f-n-khonsu, Aiwass, Ma'at
Related Topics: Stele of Revealing, Abrahadabra, Unicursal Hexagram, Abramelin oil, Thoth Terot Deck.

O.T.O. also includes the Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica(EGC) or Gnostic Catholic Church, which is the ecclesiastical arm of the Order. Its central rite, which is public, is called Liber XV or the Gnostic Mass.

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Executive Branch (Government)

The White House -

Camp David - is the country retreat of the President of the United States. It is located in wooded hills about 62 miles north-northwest of Washington, D.C. in Catoctin Mountain Park near Thurmont, Maryland. It is officially known as Naval Support Facility Thurmont and is technically a military installation; staffing is primarily provided by the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Marine Corps.

First known as Hi-Catoctin, Camp David was originally built as a camp for federal government agents and their families, by the WPA, starting in 1935, opening in 1938. In 1942, it was converted to a presidential retreat by Franklin D. Roosevelt and renamed Shangri-La for the fictional Himalayan paradise. Camp David received its present name from Dwight D. Eisenhower, in honor of his father and grandson, both named David. Camp David is not open to the general public. Catoctin Mountain Park does not indicate the location of Camp David on its official park maps due to privacy and security concerns.

WPA - The Works Progress Administration renamed in 1939 the Work Project Administration) was the largest and most ambitious New Deal Agency, employing millions of unemployed people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public work projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads. In much smaller but more famous projects the WPA employed musicians, artists, writers, actors and directors in large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects.

Blair House -

Presidential State Car -

Air Force One -

Marine One -












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Saturday, September 28th, 2013

tamarisk - noun. an Old World shrub or small tree with tiny scalelike leaves borne on slender branches, giving it a feathery appearance

stramash - verb. chiefly United Kingdom, Scotland. To strike, beat, or bang; to break; to destroy.

toxoid - noun. a toxin that has had its toxic properties removed, but retains its ability to generate an immune response

teutonic

moribund - adjective. (of a person) at the point of death; (of a thing) in terminal decline; lacking vitality or vigor

crepuscular -

doloriferous -

dolorific -

dolorous - adjective. poetic/literary. feeling or expressing great sorrow or distress.

fulminant -

gloak - noun. to silently watch someone while they are eating, hoping to be invited to join them

hugger-mugger - verb. to act in a secretive manner ORIGIN: 1530's

crapulous (also crapulent) - adjective. poetic/literary. of or relating to the drinking of alcohol or drunkenness.

lumming - adjective. heavy rain

curmuring - noun. a low rumbling sound produced by the bowels

slubberdegullion - noun. a filthy, slobbering person; a sloven, villainous person, a louse..

raze - verb. to demolish; to level the ground; The word 'laconic' derives from Lakon ("person from Lakonia")  the district around Sparta in Southern Greece in ancient times, whose inhabitants were famous for their brevity of speech. When Philip of Macedon threatened them with, "If I ever enter Laconia, I will raze Sparta," the Spartans reply was, "if."

angary - noun. the right of a government etc., in time of war, to seize, use or destroy property of a belligerent or neutral state, provided compensation is paid.

denature - verb. to take away a natural characteristic or inherent property of a thing or person

dermestid - noun. Entomology. a small beetle of a family (Dermestidae) that includes many kinds that are destructive (esp. as larvae) to hides, skin, fur, wood, and other animal substances.

mephitic - adjective. (esp. of a gas or vapor) foul smelling; noxious.

fordo - verb. [trans.] archaic. to do away with; destroy 2. to overcome with fatigue-- used only as pas participle

shend - verb. archaic. to put to shame or confusion 2. archaic. reprove; revile 3. chiefly dialect. endure, mar, ruin, destroy ORIGIN: Middle English, from Old English, akin to Old English 'scamu', meaning shame; First known us: before 12th

interdict - noun. a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical censure withdrawing most sacraments and Christian burial from a person or district; a prohibitory decree

warmongering - noun. a sovereign or political leader or activist who encourages or advocates aggression or warfare toward other nations or groups.

bellicose - adjective. demonstrating aggression and willingness to fight

inimical - adjective. tending to obstruct harm; unfriendly, hostile ORIGIN: early 16th cent.: from Latin inimicalcalis, from Latin inimicus

truculent - adjective. eager or quick to argue or fight; aggressively defiant.

pugnacious - adjective. eager or quick to argue, quarrel, or fight; having the appearance of a willing fighter

spiflicate - verb. informal humorous. treat roughly or severely; destroy ORIGIN: mid 18th cent.: a fanciful formation

vermifuge - noun. Medicine. an anthelmintic medicine.

anthelmintic - adjective [attrib.] (chiefly of medicines) used to destroy parasitic worms

bollix - verb. vulgar slang. (usu. bollix something up) bungle (a task)2. plural noun. variant spelling of BOLLOCKS 3. bollocks - british. noun. [in pl.] the testicles 2. noun. used to express contempt, annoyance, or defiance

enecate - verb. to kill off; destroy

aeneid - noun. a Latin epic poem by Vergil, recounting the adventures of Aeneas after the fall of Troy

cautery - noun. Medicine. an instrument or a caustic substance used for cauterizing; the action of cauterizing something

banjax - verb. Brit. informal. ruin; incapacitate

babeuf - noun. Francois Noel, ( Gracchus Babeuf) 1760-97, French revolutionary; -n Francois Noel 1760-97, French political agitator : plotted unsuccessfully to destroy the Directory and establish a communistic system

caribe - noun. another term for PIRANHA.

goaded - noun. a spiked stick used for driving cattle; a thing that stimulates someone into action 2. verb. provoke or annoy (someone) so as to stimulate some action or reaction

• [ trans . ] drive or urge (an animal) on with a goad

dipthongs - noun. a sound formed by the combination of two vowels in a single syllable, in which the sound begins as one vowel and moves toward another(as in coin, loud, and side). Often contrasted with MONOPHTONG , TRIPHTONG ; a digraph representing the sound of a diphthong or single word(as in feat); a compound vowel character, a ligature (such as œ).

concatenation - noun. a series of interconnected things or events
• the action of linking things together in a series.
• the condition of being linked in such a way.

chelura - noun. Zoology. a genus of marine amphipod crustacea, which bore into and sometimes destroy timber

chela - noun. Zoology. a pincerlike claw, esp. of a crab or other crustacean.

chelicera - noun. Zoology. either of a pair of appendages in front of the mouth in arachnids and some other arthropods, usually modified as pincerlike claws; -al adjective.

chelation - noun. chemistry. the process of chelating 2. noun. Medicine/Medical. a.  a method of removing certain heavy metals from the bloodstream, used especially in treating lead or mercury poisoning. b.  a controversial treatment for arteriosclerosis that attempts to remove calcium deposits from the inner walls of the coronary arteries.

exudation - verb. discharge (moisture or a smell) slowly and steadily
• [intrans.] (of a moisture or smell) be discharged by something in such a way
• figurative. (of a person) display (an emotion or quality) strongly and openly
• [intrans.] figurative. (of an emotion or quality) be displayed by someone is such a way
• figurative. (of a place) have a strong atmosphere of

exudate - verb. an exudate is any fluid that filters from the circulatory system into lesions or areas of inflammation. It can apply to plants as well as animals. Its composition varies but generally includes water and the dissolved solutes of the main circulatory fluid such as sap or blood. In the case of blood it will contain some or all plasma proteins, white blood cells, platelets, and in the case of local vascular damage: red blood cells. In plants, it can be a healing and defensive response to repel insect attack, or it can be an offensive habit to repel other incompatible or competitive plants. Organisms that feed on exudate are known as exudativores; for example, the Vampire Bat exhibits hematophagy, and the Pygmy marmoset is an obligate gummivore.

In humans, exudate can be a pus-like or clear fluid. When an injury occurs, leaving skin exposed, it leaks out of the blood vessels and into nearby tissues. The fluid is composed of serum, fibrin, and white blood cells. Exudate may ooze from cuts or from areas of infection or inflammation.

Types

• Purulent or suppurtive exudate consists of plasma with both active and dead neutrophils, fibrinogen, and necrotic parenchymal cells. This kind of exudate is consistent with more severe infections, and is commonly referred to as pus.

• Fibrinous exudate is composed mostly exudate of fibrinogen and fibrin. It is characteristic of rheumatic carditis, but is seen in all severe injuries such as strep throat and bacterial pneumonia. Fibrinous inflammation is often difficult to resolve due to blood vessels growing into the exudate and filling space that was occupied by fibrin. Often, large amounts of antibiotics are necessary for resolution.

• Catarrhal exudate is seen in the nose and throat and is characterized by a high content of mucus

• Serous exudate (sometimes classified as serous transudate) is usually seen in mild inflammation, with relatively low protein. Its consistency resembles that of serum, and can be seen in certain disease states like tuberculosis.

• Malignant (or cancerous) pleural effusion is effusion where cancer cells are present. It is usually classified as exudate.


serum - noun. an amber-colored, protein-rich liquid that separates out when blood coagulates; the blood serum of an animal, used esp. to provide immunity to a pathogen or toxin by inoculation or as a diagnostic agent

fibrin - noun. Biochemistry. an insoluble protein formed from fibrinogen during the clotting of blood. It forms a fibrous mesh that impedes the flow of blood.

hematophagous - adjective. (of an animal, esp. an insect or tick) feeding on blood.

gummivore - noun. an animal that eats, exudates-gum, saps, or resin

purulent - adjective. containing, discharging, or causing the production of pus

suppurate - verb. undergo the formation of pus; fester

neutrophils - noun. Physiology. a neutrophilic white blood cell

fibrinogen -noun. Biochemistry. a soluble protein present in blood plasma, from which fibrin is produced by the action of the enzyme thrombin.

necrotic - noun. Medicine. the death of most or all of the cells in an organ or tissue due to disease, injury, or failure of the blood supply

parenchymal - noun. Anatomy. the functional tissue of an organ as distinguished from the connective and supporting tissue.

• Botany the cellular tissue, typically soft and succulent, found chiefly in the softer parts of leaves, pulp of fruits, bark and pitch of stems, etc.

• Zoology cellular tissue lying between the body wall and the organs of invertebrate animals lacking a coelom, such as flatworms

rheumatic carditis -

catarrhal - noun. excessive discharge or buildup of mucus in the nose or throat, associated with inflammation of the mucous membrane.

serous - adjective. Physiology. of, resembling, or producing serum

transudate - verb. archaic. discharge (a fluid ) gradually through the pores in a membrane, esp. within the body; (of a fluid) be discharged in such a way

tuberculosis - noun. an infectious bacterial disease characterized by the growth of nodules(tubercles) in the tissues, esp. the lungs • The disease is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis or (esp. in animals) a related species; Gram-positive acid-fast rods.

The most common form, pulmonary tuberculosis (formerly known as 'consumption'), is caused by inhalation of the bacteria. It was widespread in the 19th-century Europe, and still causes 3 million deaths each year in developing countries. The disease can affect other parts of the body, notably the bones and joints and the central nervous system. Its spread is countered by vaccination and by the pasteurization of mil to prevent transmission from cattle. It was once considered incurable, but early X-ray diagnosis permits its arrest by drugs and surgery.

rhizosphere - noun. Ecology. the region of soil in the vicinity of plant roots in which the chemistry and microbiology is influenced by their growth, respiration, and nutrient exchange.

vampire bat - noun. a bat from Central and South America that sucks the blood of people and animals; any of several Central and South American bats Desmodus rotundus, Diaemus youngi, and Diphylla ecaudata of the subfamily Desmodontinae of the family Phyllostomidae that feed on the blood of birds and mammals and especially domestic animals and that are sometimes vectors of disease and especially of rabies; also any of several other bats (as of the families Megadermatidae and Phyllostomidae that feed on the blood of birds and mammals and especially

laud - verb. formal. praise (a person or their achievements) highly, esp. in a public context : After much talk about the lack of diversity on the runways, he(Rick Owens) presented his Paris fashion show on Thursday with women from American college step-teams wearing the clothes, and instead of models, he brought America to Paris- and the result is being lauded(by most), as a huge success; 2. noun. archaic. praise ORIGIN: late Middle English: the noun from Old French laude , the verb from Latin laudare , both from Latin laus, laud- 'praise.'

madder root - noun. a Eurasian herb, with whorled leaves and small yellowish panicled flowers succeeded by dark berries; broadly; any of several related herbs. 2. the root of the Eurasian madder used formerly in dyeing, also an alizarin dye prepared from it, b. a moderate to strong red

tule - noun. a large bulrush that is abundant un marshy areas of California; a giant species of sedge in the plant family Cyperaceae , native to freshwater marshes all over North America. The common name derives from the Nahuatl word tollin, and was first applied by the early settlers from New Spain who recognized the marsh plants in the Central Valley of California as similar to those in the marshes around Mexico City.

Tules once lined the shores of Tulare Lake, California, formerly the largest freshwater lake in the western United States, until it was drained by land speculators in the 20th century. The expression "out in the tules" is still common, deriving from the dialect of old Californian families and means "where no one would want to live", with a touch of irony. The phrase is comparable to "out in the boondocks."

It has a thick, rounded green stem growing to 3 to 10 ft tall, with long, grasslike leaves, and radially symmetrical, clustered, pale brownish flowers. Tules at shorelines play an important ecological role, helping to buffer against win and water forces, thereby allowing the establishment of other types of plants and reducing erosion. Tules are sometimes cleared from waterway using herbicides. When erosion occurs, tule rhizomes are replanted in strategic areas.

Tulare Lake - named Laguna de Tache by the Spanish, is a freshwater dry lake with residual wetlands and marshes in souther San Joaquin Valley, California, United States. After Lake Cahuilla disappeared in the 17th century, Tulare Lake was the largest freshwater lake west of the Mississippi River and the second larges freshwater lake entirely in the United States, based upon surface area. The lake dried up after its tributary rivers were diverted for agricultural irrigation and municipal water uses.

tulle - noun. a soft, fine silk, cotton, or nylon material like net, used for making veils and dresses

sedge -


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The Uto-Aztecan Language Families

The Uto-Aztecan Language Families - noun. a language family of Central America and western North America including Comanche, Hopi, Nahuatl(the language of the Aztecs), Paiute, Pima, and Shoshone.

Nahuatl - is a language of the Nahuan  branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. It is spoken by an estimated 1.5 million Nahua people, most of whom live in Central Mexico; some who live in El Salvador are known as the Pipil people. All Nahuan languages are indigenous to Mesoamerica.

Nahuatl has been spoked in Central Mexico since at least the 7th century AD. It was the language of the Aztecs who dominated what is now central Mexico during the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican history. During the centuries preceding the Spanish conquest of Mexico, the Aztec Empire had expanded to incorporate most of Mexico, and its influence caused the variety of Nahuatl spoken by the residents of Tenochtitlan to become a prestige language in Mesoamerica. At the conquest, with the introduction of the Latin alphabet, Nahuatl also became a literary language, and many chronicles, grammars, works of poetry, administrative documents and codices were written in it during the 16th and 17th centuries. This early literary language based on the Tenochtitlan variety has been labeled Classical Nahuatl and is among the most studied and best-documented languages of the Americas.

Today Nahuatl varieties are spoken in scattered communities, mostly in rural areas throughout central Mexico and along the coastline. There are considerable differences among varieties, and some are mutually unintelligible. They have all been subject to varying degrees of influence from Spanish. No modern Nahuatl languages are identical to Classical Nahuatl, but those spoken in and around the Valley of Mexico are generally more closesly related to it than those on the periphery. Under Mexico's Ley General de Derechos Linguisticos de los Pueblos Indigenas("General Law on the Linguistic Rights of Indigenous Peoples") promulgated in 2003, Nahuatl and the other 63 indigenous languages of Mexico are recognized as national languages in the regions where they are spoken, enjoying the same status as Spanish within their region.

Nahuatl is a language with a complex morphology characterized by polysynthesis and agglutination. Through centuries of coexistence with the other indigenous Mesoamerican languages, Nahuatl has absorbed many influenced, coming to form part of the Mesoamerican Linguistic Area.

Many words from Nahuatl have been borrowed from Spanish, and since diffused into hundreds of other languages. Most of these loanwords denote things indigenous to central Mexico which the Spanish heard mentioned for the first time by their Nahuatl names. English words of Nahuatl origin include "avocado", "chayote", "chili", "chocolate", "atlatl", "coyote", "axolotl", and "tomato".

Place of Nahuatl within Uto-Aztecan

In the past, the branch of Uto-Aztecan to which Nahuatl belongs was called "Aztecan". From the 1990s on, the alternative designation "Nahuan" has been frequently used as a replacement especially in Spanish language publications. The Nahuan(Aztecan) branch of Uto-Aztecan is widely accepted as having two divisions, "General Aztec" and Pochutec.

General Aztec encompasses the Nahuatl and Pipil languages. Pochutec is a scantily attested language which went extinct in the 20th century which Campbell and Langacker classify as being outside of general Aztec. Other researchers argue that Pochutec should be considered a divergent variant of the western periphery.

"Nahuatl" denotes at least Classical Nahuatl together with related modern languages spoken in Mexico. The inclusion of Pipil(Nawat) into the group is slightly controversial. Lyle Campbell classifies Pipil as separate from the Nahuatl branch within general Aztecan, whereas dialectologists like Una Canger, Karen Dakin and Yolanda Lastra prefer to include Pipil in the General Aztecan branch, citing close historical ties with the eastern peripheral dialects of General Aztec.


pochutec -

Nahua people -

Tenochtitlan -

Comanche -

Hopi -

Paiute -

Pima -

Shoshone -

prestige language -

agglutination -

polysynthesis -

morphology -

Mesoamerica history -

Nahua people -

Pipil - Pipil (natively Nawat) is an Uto-Aztecan language which is similar to Nahuatl, and which was spoken in several parts of present-day Central America before the Spanish conquest. Although it has been on the verge of extinction in western El Salvador and has already gone extinct elsewhere in Central America, as of 2012, new second language speakers are starting to appear.

In El Salvador, Nawat was the language of several tribes; Nonualcos, Cuscatlecos, Mazahuas, and Izalcos. The name Pipil for this language is used by the international scholarly community, chiefly to differentiate it more clearly from Nahuatl.

Aztec -

Quechua - noun. (pl. same or Quechuas) a member of an American Indian people of Peru and parts of Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador. 2. the language or group of languages of this people.

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Words of Nahuatl Origin in English

avocado - noun. a pear-shaped fruit with a rough leathery skin, smooth oily edible flesh, and a large stone, also called ALLIGATOR PEAR; a light green color like that of the flesh of avocados 2. the tropical evergreen tree that bears this fruit. It is native to Central America and widely cultivated elsewhere.

Etymology

The word "avocado" comes from the Spanish aguacate which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word ahuacatl which goes back to the proto-Aztecan pa-wa with the same meaning. In some countries of South America, such as Argentina Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Uruguay, the avocado is known by its Quechua name, palta. In other Spanish-speaking countries it is known by the Mexican name and in Portuguese it is abacate. The fruit is sometimes called an avocado pear or alligator pear(due to its shape and the rough green skin of some cultivars). The Nahuatl ahuacatl can be compounded with other words, as in ahuacamolli, meaning avocado soup or sauce, from which the Spanish word guacamole derives.

The modern English name is not etymologically related to the similar sounding Spanish word abogado, meaning 'lawyer' , but comes through an English rendering of the Spanish "aguacate" as "avogato". The earliest known written use in English is attested from 1697 as "Avogato Pear", a term which was later corrupted as "alligator pear". Because the word avogato sounded like "advocate" several languages reinterpreted it to have that meaning and "advocate"-forms of the word appear in several other Germanic languages, such as the German Advogato-Birne, the Swedish advokatpeer, the old Danish advokat-paere(though today it is called "avocado") and the Dutch advocaatpeer. It is known as "butter fruit" in parts of India. In eastern China it is known as e li(a direct translation of "alligator pear") or hangyou guo("butter fruit").

cultivar - noun. Botany. a plant variety that has been produced in cultivation by selective breeding. Cultivars are usually designated in the style Taxus baccata "Variegata." ORIGIN: 1920s: portmanteau, blend of Cultivate and Variety.

chayote -

chili -

chocolate -

atlatl -

coyote -

axotl -

tomato -

ablutions -

purulent -
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70 Obscure Color Words


aenous - adjective. shining bronze color

albicant - adjective. whitish; becoming white

alizarin - noun. Chemistry. a red pigment present in madder root, used in dyeing; denoting dyes derived from or similar to this pigment alizarin crimson.

albuginous - adjective. white-colored; like the white of an eye or an egg

argent - adjective. the heraldic color silver; white

atrous - adjective. jet black

aubergine - adjective. eggplant; a dark purple color

aurulent - adjective. gold-colored

azuline - adjective. blue

azure - light or sky blue; heraldic color blue

badious - adjective light creamy brown

briljant -

brunneous - adjective. dark brown;

burnet - adjective. dark brown; dark woolen cloth

cadmium red-purple

cadmium yellow lemon -

cadmium yellow -

caesious - adjective. bluish or grayish green

cardinal - adjective. deep scarlet red color

Caribbean blue -

castaneous - adjective. chestnut-colored

castory - adjective. brown color; brown dye derived from beaver pelts

celadon - adjective. pale green

celeste - adjective. sky blue

cerise - adjective. a deep to vivid pinkish red

corbeau - adjective. blackish green

chartreuse -

chlorochrous -

chrysochlorous -

cinerious -

citrine -

claret -

cobalt -

coccineous -

columbine -

coquelicot -

corbeau -

cramoisy -

cremnitz white -

crimson -

cyan -

eau-de-nil -

ebon -

ebony -

eburnean - adjective. made of ivory; white as ivory

delft blue - adjective. denotes pottery made in and around Delft in the Netherlands and the tin-glazed pottery made in the Netherlands from the 16th century.

dioxazine mauve - adjective. a shade of purple

ferruginous - adjective. containing iron oxides or rust

filemot - adjective. pertaining to the color of a dead or faded leaf; dull brown or yellowish brown

flake white -

fluorescent -

fuliginous - adjective. sooty; smoky; of the color of soot, as dark gray

fulvous - adjective. tawny; dull yellowish-gray or yellowish brown

fuscous - adjective. of brownish gray or dusky color

gamboge - noun. also, cambogia. a gum resin from various Asian trees of the genus Garcinia, especially G. hanburyi, used as a yellow pigment and as a cathartic 2. yellow or yellow-orange

gridelin - noun. gray of flax or flax-gray 2. a color mixed of white, and red, or a gray violet. Also written, gredaline, grizelin.

griseous - adjective. gray; pearl-gray

haematic - adjective. Also: haemic relating to, acting on, having the color of, or containing blood

hoary - adjective. gray or white with age; ancient or venerable; tedious from familiarity

ibis - noun. any of several large wading birds of the family Threskiornithidae of warm temperate and tropical regions, related to the herons and storks, characterized by a long, thin, downwardly-curved bill.

icteritious - adjective. Yellow; of the color of the skin when it is affected by the jaundice

indigo - noun. a blue dye obtained from various plants, especially of the genus Indigofera, or manufactured synthetically 2. indigo blue 3. any of numerous hairy plants belonging to the family Indigofera, of the legume family, having pinnate leaves and clusters of usually red or purple flowers 3. a color ranging from a deep violet blue to a dark, grayish blue.

infuscate -

isabelline -

jacinthe -

kermes -

lurid -

lutescent -

madder -

madder crimson -

mars black -

melanic -

melichrous -

niveous -

ochre -

or -

ponceau -

prussian -

rouge -

royal blue -

royal purple -

russet -

sarcoline - adjective. flesh-colored

sarco- or sarc- - 1. Flesh; sarcophagic 2. striated muscle

smalt - adjective. a deep blue pigment consisting of a powdered glass that contains oxide of cobalt ORIGIN: Middle French, from Old Italian 1558: smalto, of Germanic origin; akin to Old High German smelzan, 'to melt.'

terracotta - noun. unglazed, typically brownish-red earthenware, used chiefly as an ornamental building material and in modeling; a statuette or other object made of such earthenware; a strong brownish-red or brownish-orange color.

titian -

umber - noun. a natural pigment resembling but darker than ocher, normally dark yellowish-brown in color(raw umber) or dark brown when roasted (burnt umber);2. a brownish-gray moth with coloring that resembles tree bark ORIGIN:mid 16th cent.:from French (terre d')ombre or Italian (terra di)ombra, literally '(earth of) shadow,' from Latin umbra 'shadow' or Umbra (feminine) 'Umbrian.'

velvet -

vermillion -

vinous -

virescent -

virid -

viridian -

viridian blue -

vitellary -

wallflower -

wheaten - adjective. (esp. of bread) made of wheat; of a color resembling that of wheat; a pale yellow-beige

willowish - adjective. Having the color of the willow; resembling the willow; willowy.

xanthic - adjective. Tending toward a yellow color, or to one of those colors, green being excepted, in which yellow is a constituent, as scarlet, orange, etc.

zinnober - noun. Vermillion is a brilliant red or scarlet pigment originally made from the powdered mineral cinnabar, and is also the name of the resulting color. It was widely used in the art and decoration of Ancient Rome, in the illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages, in the paintings of the Renaissance, and in he ar lacquerware of Chine, where it is often called "Chinese Red."


tetrachromacy -  

color space -

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roily - adjective. (chiefly of water) muddy; turbulent

lallation - a lallation (also called cambia-tetras or trova-letra, "letter-changer" , in Latin American countries) is an imperfect enunciation of the letter, "L", in which it sounds like "R", as frequently found in infantile speech. The speech pattern has been particularly associated with the use of Portuguese, Spanish, and English languages by Chinese, Korean, and Japanese people. The use of lallation has thus been a common feature of Western stereotypes of East Asian People.

ambivert - noun. Psychology. a person whose personality has a balance of extrovert and introvert features

eutectic - adjective. relating to or denoting to a mixture of substances (in fixed proportions) that melts and solidifies at a single temperature that is lower than the melting points of the separate constituents or any other mixture of them; noun. a eutectic mixture, short for EUTECTIC POINT Origin: late 19th cent.: from Greek eutektos 'easily melting,' from eu 'well, easily' + tekein 'melt.'

bourse - noun. a stock market in a non-English-speaking country, esp. France
• (Bourse) the Paris stock exchange ORIGIN: mid 16th cent. (as burse, the usual form until the mid 19th cent.) from French, literally 'purse', via medieval Latin from Greek bursa 'leather.'

kettle hole - noun. Geology. a hollow, typically filled by a lake, resulting from the melting of a mass of ice trapped in glacial deposits

kettle - noun. a vessel, usually made of metal and with a handle, used for boiling liquids or cooking foods; a pot.

eustasy - noun. a change of sea level throughout the world, caused typically by movements of parts of the earth's crust or melting of glaciers

glade - noun. an open space in a forest

frazil - noun. soft or amorphous ice formed by the accumulation of ice crystals in water that is too turbulent to freeze solid.

pagophagia - noun. the compulsion to eat ice, typically associated as the symptom of a lack of iron

huronian glaciation - The Huronian glaciation (or Makganyene glaciation) extended from 2400 Mya to 2100 Mya, during the Siderian and Rhyacian periods of the Paleoproterozoic era, following the Great Oxygenation Event(GOE), which oxidized the atmospheric methane.

Makganyene glaciation -

Mya -

Paleoproterozoic Era -

Rhyacian period -

Siderian -

Great Oxygenation Event -

phase rule - noun. Chemistry. a rule relating the possible numbers of phases, constituents, and degrees of freedom in a chemical system.

hummock - noun. a hillock, knoll, or mound; a hump or ridge in an ice field, a piece of forested ground rising above a marsh

floe - noun. a sheet of floating ice

Kara sea - an arm of the Arctic Ocean off the Northern coast of Russia, bounded on the east by the islands of Severnaya Zemlya and on the west by those of Novaya Zemlya

serac - noun. a pinnacle or ridge of ice on the surface of a glacier

cornice - noun. an ornamental molding around the wall of a room just below the ceiling 2. an overhanging mass of hardened snow at the edge of a a mountain preceipice

bombe - noun. a frozen dome-shaped mold in which this dessert is made

crampon - noun. (usu. crampons) a metal plate with spikes fixed to a boot for walking on ice or rock climbing 2. archaic. Grappling hook

logomachy - noun. rare. an argument about words

parley - noun. (pl. -leys) a conference between opposing sides in a dispute , esp. a discussion of terms for an armistice 2. verb. hold a conference with the opposing side to discuss terms

pisciculture - noun. the controlled breeding and rearing of fish

Machinal - Proper Noun. a play written by American playwright and journalist Sophie Treadwell, inspired by the real life case of convicted and executed murderer Ruth Snyder. In 1928 Broadway premiere, directed by Arthur Hopkins, is considered one of the high points of Expressionist theatre on the American stage. It was included in Burn's Mantle's The Best Plays of 1928-1929

macilency - noun. also (macilences) macilent condition, thin, lean; esp. leanness of the body

machicolation - noun. (in medieval fortifications) an opening between the supporting corbels of a projecting parapet or the vault of a gate, through which stones or burning objects could be dropped on attackers

corbels - noun. (pl. -ls) a projection jutting out from a wall to support a structure above it 2. verb. support (a structure such as an arch or balcony) on corbels ORIGIN: late Middle English: from Old French, diminutive of corp 'crow,' from Latin corvus 'raven' (perhaps because of the shape of a corbel, resembling a crow's beak)

madake - noun. large bamboo, having thick-walled culms; Native of China and perhaps Japan, widely grown elsewhere

culms - noun. the hollow stem of a grass or cereal plant, esp. that bearing the flower

madnep -

mactation - noun. Botany. The masterwort; wild parsnip, Earth pitch (biennial weed in Europe and America having large pinnate leaves and yellow flowers and a bitter and somewhat poisonous root; the ancestor of cultivated parsnip.)

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Masterwort


Masterwort - typically refers to the plant Peucedanum ostruthium or Imperatoria ostruthium in the family Apiaceae, and not to be confused with great masterwort, Astrantia major, in the same family.

Habit

Woodland gardens and meadows, in semi shady areas

Use

Masterwort is also used as a flavor for various liqueurs and bitters. Peucedanium ostruthium roots and leaves have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally) as tea, liqueurs and wine) and externally (as fumigation, tincture, or incense) for treatment disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, skin respiratory tract, cardiovascular system, infections, fever, flu, and colds.

Chemical constituents

The plant is a source of coumarins, including oxypeucedanin, ostruthol, imperatorin, osthole, isoimperatorin, and ostruthin.

coumarins -

oxypeucedanin -

ostruthol -

imperatorin -

osthole -

isoimperatorin -

ostruthin -

celery - noun. a cultivated plant of the parsley family, with closely packed and succulent leafstalks that are eaten raw or cooked Apium graveolens var. dulce, family Umbelliferae.

Garden Angelica -

cumin -

caraway -

chervil -

cicely -

fennel -

dill -

lovage -

coriander -

celeriac -

ajowan - noun. an annual plant (Trachyspermum ammi) of the parsley family, with feathery leaves and white flowers. Native to India, the aromatic seeds of the ajowan plant, used as a culinary spice, the essential oil of the ajowan plant

asafoetida -

arracacha -

anise - noun. a Mediterranean plant of the parsley family, cultivated for its aromatic seeds, which are used in cooking and herbal medicine 2. an Asian or American tree or shrub that bears fruit with an aiseed-like odor

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pissasphalt -

Edda - either of two 13th-century Icelandic books, the Elder or Poetic Edda (a collection of Old Norse poems on Norse legends) and the Younger or Prose Edda (a handbook to Icelandic poetry by Snorri Sturluson). The Eddas are the chief source of knowledge of Scandinavian mythology.

kalevala -

Homeric - adjective. of or in the style of Homer or the epic poems ascribed to him; epic and large-scale.

bax -

Nibelungenlied - a 13th-century German poem, embodying a story found in the (Poetic) Edda, telling of the life and death of Siegfried, a prince of the Netherlands. There have been many adaptations of the story, including Wagner's epic music dram Der Ring des Nibelungen (1847-74)

Robinia - is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae, native to North America and northern Mexico. Commonly known as "locusts", they are deciduous trees and shrubs growing 13-82 feet tall. The leaves are white or pink, in usually pendulous racemes. Many species have thorny shoots, and several have sticky hairs on the shoots.

runes -

kohnur -

divan -

masorete -

epos -

roget -

goliards - noun. a wandering student in medieval Europe disposed to conviviality, license, and the making of ribald and satirical songs.

goliardery - noun. Literature/Poetry. the poems of the goliards

ribald - adjective. characterized by or indulging in vulgar,lewd humor; 2. noun. vulgar, lewdly funny person.

idyls -

bucoliast -

storiology -

sibelius -

hagiology -

mishnah -

almagest -

hexapla -

hakluyt -

xeronisus -

karezza -

fourchette -

kraurosis vulvae -

nymphitis -

episiotomy -

pudendum - noun. a person's external genitals, esp. a woman's

gerundive - noun. Grammar. (in Latin) a form that is derived from a verb but that functions an an adjective, denoting something "that should or must be done."

clitoridectomy -

phimosis - noun. Medicine. a congenital narrowing of the opening of the foreskin so that it cannot be retracted

elephantine -

Brobdingnagian - adjective. gigantic; noun. a giant.

tailpot -

diplodocus -

megalosaur -

ribaudequin -

sciapodous -

prepuce -

immensive -

hama -

pantagruel -

hypermarket -



prattle -

sonant -

phonate -

surd -

rhotacism -

paralalia -

phoneme -

splutter -

malapropism -

euphony -

allophone -

hebephrenia -

bilabial -

labiovelar -

orotund -

fricative -



tantalus -

danaides -

rhabdophobia -

rebuked -

tereus -

jamshid -



enceladus -

procne -

callisto -

pillory -

rusticate -

amerce -

gored -

tumbrel -

castigate -

ferule -


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9/12/13 to 9/29/ Words

burnish - verb. to polish or brighten

secateurs - plural noun. (also a pair of secateurs) chiefly British. a pair of
pruning clippers for use with one hand

stet - verb. (stetted, stetting) let it stand (as an instruction on a printed proof to indicate that a correction or alteration should be ignored)

palmate - adjective. Botany. (of a leaf) having several lobes (typically 5-7) whose midribs all radiate from one point 2. Zoology. (of an antler) in which the angles between the tines are partly filled in to form a broad flat surface, as in fallow deer and moose

tines - noun. a prong or sharp point, such as that on a fork or antler

pip - noun. a small hard seed in a fruit; adjective. pipless

pip 2 - noun. a small shape or symbol, in particular:
• any of the spots on playing cards, dice, or dominoes.
• a single blossom of a clustered head of flowers.
• a diamond-shaped segment of the surface of a pineapple
• an image of an object on a radar screen; blip.
• British. a star (1-3 according to rank) on the shoulder of an army officer's uniform. ORIGIN: late 16th cent. (originally peep, denoting each of the dots on playing cards, dice, and dominoes): of unknown origin

pip 4 - verb. (of a young bird) crack (the shell of the egg) hen hatching. ORIGIN: late 19th cent.: perhaps of imitative origin

pip 5 - (pipped, pipping) British Informal. verb. [trans.] (usually be pipped) defeat by a small margin or at the last moment.
• dated. hit or wound (someone) with a gunshot.

pippin - noun. a red and yellow desert apple, an apple grown from seed; informal. an excellent person or thing

pipless - verb. (of a young bird) crack (the shell of the egg) hen hatching. ORIGIN: late 19th cent.: perhaps of imitative origin

thew - noun. poetic/literary. muscular strength.
• (thews) muscles and tendons perceived as generating such strength; adjective. thewy
ORIGIN: Old English theaw [usage, custom,] (plural) [(personal manner of behaving,] of unknown origin. The sense [good bodily proportions, muscular development] arose in Middle English.

cohort - noun. [treated as sing. or pl.] an ancient Roman military unit, comprising six centuries, equal to one tenth of a legion 2. a group of people banded together or treated as a group 3. a supporter or companion

Nine Shift: Work, Life and Education in the 21st Century

Lindsey Pollak, Getting From College to Career: Your Essential Guide to Succeeding in the Real World

Shame society - In cultural anthropology, a shame culture, also called honor-shame culture or shame society, is the concept that, in a given society, the primary device for gaining control over children and maintaining social order is the inculcation of shame and the complementary threat of ostracism. A shame society is contrasted with a guilt society in which control is maintained by creating and continually reinforcing the feeling of guilt (and the expectation of punishment now or in the afterlife for certain condemned behaviors.

sacrilege - noun. violation or misuse of what is regarded as sacred

parasite single -

NEET(Not in Education, Employment, or Training) -

egosyntonic -

Kodokushi -

cocooning - is the name given to the trend that sees individuals socializing less and retreating into their homes more. The term was coined in the 1990's by Faith Popcorn, a trend forecaster and marketing consultant.

selective mutism - noun. Psychology. Selective Mutism(SM) is a psychiatric disorder in which a person who is normally capable of speech is unable to speak in given situations or to specific people. Selective mutism usually co-exists with shyness or social anxiety. In fact, the majority of children diagnosed with selective mutism also have social anxiety disorder (100% of participants in two studies and 97% in another). Some researchers therefore speculate that selective mutism maybe an avoidance strategy used by a subgroup of children with social anxiety disorder to reduce their distress in social situations.

cosseter - (also Helicopter parent or cosseting parent or cosseter) is a parent who pays extremely close attention to a child's or children's experiences and problems, particularly at educational institutions. Helicopter parents are so named because, like helicopters, they hover overhead.

helicopter parents -

psychographic -

shorn -

lilt - noun. a characteristic rising and falling of the voice when speaking; a pleasant gentle accent; a pleasant, gently swinging rhythm in a song or tune ; archaic. chiefly Scottish. a cheerful tune 2. verb. speak, sing, or sound with a lilt.

malfeasance - noun. Law. wrongdoing. esp. by a public official

fracas - noun. (pl. -cas-es) a noisy disturbance or quarrel. ORIGIN: early 18th cent.: French, from fracasser, from Italian fracassare , from Italian fracassare =  

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Skunks

skunk - noun. (also called polecats in America) are mammals known for their ability to spray a liquid with a strong odor. Different species of skunk vary in appearance from black-and-white to brown or cream colored, but all have warning coloration.

Etymology

The word "polecat" (with "pole" from either the French poule "chicken or puant "stinking"), which in Europe refers to the wild relatives of the ferret, has been attested in the New World to refer to the skunk since the 1680s. The word "squunck" is attested in New England in the Algonquian language, with the Proto-Algonquian form being a compound of the roots*/sek-/ meaning 'to urinate' and* /seka:kwa/ meaning 'fox'. The name of the family and of the most common genus (Mephitidae, Mephitis) means "stench{" , while Spilogale putorius means "stinking spotted weasel".

Physical Description

Skunk species vary in size from about 15.6 to 37 in(40-94 cm) and in weight from about 1.1 lb (0.50 kg) (spotted skunks) to 18 lb (8.2 kg) (hog-nosed skunks). They have moderately elongated bodies with relatively short, well-muscled legs, and long front claws for digging.

Although the most common fur color is black and white, some skunks are brown or grey, and a few are cream-colored. All skunks are striped, even from birth. They may have a single thick stripe across back and tail, two thinner stripes, or a series of white sports (

warning coloration -



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Falklands War

Falklands War - also known as the Falklands Conflict or Falklands Crisis was a 1982 war between Argentina and the United Kingdom. The conflict resulted from the long-standing dispute over the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which lie in the South Atlantic, east of Argentina. The Falklands War began on Friday, 2 April 1982, when Argentine forces invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands and South Georgia. The British government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Air Force, and retake the islands by amphibious assault. The resulting conflict lasted 74 days and ended with the Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982, which returned the islands to British control. During the conflict, 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel and 3 Falkland Islanders died.

The conflict was the result of a protracted historical confrontation regarding the sovereignty of the islands. Argentina has asserted that the Falkland Islands have been Argentinian territory since the 19th century and, as of 2013, has not relinquished the claim. The claim was added to the Argentine constitution after its reformation in 1994. As such, the Argentine government characterized their initial invasion as the re-occupation of their own territory, whilst the British government saw it as an invasion of a British dependent territory. However, neither state officially declared war and hostilities were almost exclusively limited to the territories under dispute and the local area of the South Atlantic.

The conflict had a strong impact on both countries. Patriotic sentiment ran high in ARgentina, but the outcome prompted large protests against the ruling military government, which hastened its downfall. In the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's government was bolstered by the successful outcome. The war has played an important role in the culture of both countries, and has been the subject of several books, scholarly articles, films, and songs. Over time, the cultural and political weight of the conflict has had less effect on the British public than on that of Argentina, where the war is still a topic of discussion.

Relations between the United Kingdom and Argentina were restored in 1989 following a meeting in Madrid, at which the two governments issued a joint statement which explicitly did not change either side's position on sovereignty.
                                                              


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Philosophy

acatalepsy - noun. Philosophy. (to seize), in Philosophy, is incomprehensibleness, or the impossibility of comprehending or conceiving a thing. The Pyrrhonians attempted to show, while Academic skeptics of the Pyrrhonians attempted to show, while Academic skeptics of the Platonic Academy asserted an absolute acatalepsia; all human science or knowledge, according to them, went no further than to appearances and verisimilitude. It is the antithesis of the Stoic doctrine of catalepsy or Apprehension. According to the Stoics, catalepsy was true perception, but to the Skeptics, all perceptions were acataleptic, i.e. bore no conformity to the objects perceived, or, if they did bear any conformity, it could never be known.

verisimilitude - noun. a philosophical concept that distinguishes between the truth and the falsity of assertions and hypotheses. The problem of verisimilitude is the problem of articulating what it takes for one false theory to be closer to the truth than another false theory.

This problem was central to the philosophy of Karl Popper, largely because Popper was among the first to affirm that the truth is the aim of scientific inquiry while acknowledging that most of the greatest scientific theories in the history of science are, strictly speaking, false. If this long string of purportedly false theories is to constitute progress with respect to the goal of truth then it must be at least possible for one false theory to be closer to the truth than others.

Sir Karl Raimund Popper - (July 28, 1902--September 17, 1994) was an Austro-British philosopher and the professor at the London School of Economics. He is generally regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of the 20th century. He also wrote extensively on social and political philosophy. In 1992, he was awarded the Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy for "symbolizing the open spirit of the 20th century" and for his "enormous influence on the formation of the modern intellectual climate." Popper is known for his attempt to repudiate the classical observationalist/inductivist form of the scientific method in favor of empirical falsification. He is also known for his opposition to the classical justificationist account of knowledge which he replaced with critical rationalism, "the first non justificational philosophy of criticism in the history of philosophy." In political discourse, he is known for his vigorous defense of liberal democracy and the principles of social criticism that he came to believe made a flourishing "open society" possible.

Main Interests

Epistemology - noun. Philosophy. the theory of knowledge, esp. with regard to its methods, validity, and scope. Epistemology is the investigation of what distinguishes justified belief from opinion.

Rationality -

Philosophy of Science -

logic -

Social and Political Philosophy -

Metaphysics -

Philosophy of mind -

Origin of Life -

Interpretation of Quantum mechanics -

Notable Ideas

observationalist -

inductivist -

Critical rationalism -

falsification -

evolutionary trial and error view of the growth of knowledge -

propensity interpretation -

open society -

cosmological pluralism -

modified essentialism -

axiomatization of probability -

axiomatization -

active Darwinism -

spearhead model of evolution -

truth-likeness -

hermeneutics - plural noun. [ usu. treated as sing. ] the branch of knowledge that deals with interpretation, esp. of the Bible or literary texts.

objective hermeneutics

the paradox of tolerance

critical dualism (of facts and standards) -

Negative utilitarism -

Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy - is a once yearly awarded Prize for Arts and Philosophy by the Inamori Foundation for lifetime achievements in the arts and philosophy. It is one of three Kyoto Prize categories; the others are the Kyoto Prize in Advanced Technology and the Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences. The first Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy was awarded to Olivier Messiaen in 1985, the "greatest composer to have emerged from 20th century France". It is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in fields which are traditionally not honored with a Nobel Prize.










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Aeroplanes, Airplanes, and Things in the Sky


hang gliding - noun. an unpowered flying apparatus for a single person, consisting of a frame with a fabric airfoil stretched over it. The operator is suspended from a harness below and controls flight by body movement.

Cessna Citation Jet -

Grob Aerospace -

Bombardier Aerospace -

Hawker Beechcraft -

Beech Aircraft Company -

Mitsubishi

foot-launched powered hang gliders -

air ambulance - noun. Aviation. air medical services is a comprehensive term covering the use of air transportation to move patients to and from healthcare facilities to improve their level of care. Personnel provide comprehensive prehospital and emergency and critical care to all types of patients during aeromedical evacuation or rescue operations aboard helicopter and propeller aircraft or jet aircraft.

The use of air transport of patients dates to Word War 1, but its role was expanded dramatically during the Korean and Vietnam conflicts. The first hospital-based air medical service began in Denver at St. Anthony hospital in 1972. Helicopters are used to transport patients between hospitals and from trauma scenes; fixed-wing aircraft are used for long-distance transports.

crop dusting -

charter flights -

police air patrols -

forest fire fighting -

Air Creation Tanarg -

Antonov An-225 -


Fighter Aircraft

Lockheed SR-71 -

Sopwith Camel -

A6M Zero -

F-15 -

F-22 -

MiG-29 -

Su-27 -

Ground Attack Aircraft

Junkers Stuka -

A-10 -

Il-2 -

J-22 Orao -

AH-64

Su-25

Bombers

Zeppelin -

Tu-95 -

Mirage IV -

B-52 -

Transport Aircraft

C-17 Globemaster III -

C-130 Hercules -

Mil Mi-26

Surveillance and Reconnaissance Aircraft

Rumpler Taube -

Mosquito -

U-2 -

OH-58

MiG 25R -

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles(UAV)

RQ-7B Shadow -

MQ-8 Fire Scout -

MQ1C Gray Eagle -




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Eclipse Aviation

Eclipse 500 - noun. Aviation. The Eclipse 500 is a small six-seat business jet aircraft manufactured by Eclipse Aviation. Eclipse 500 became the first of a new class of Very Light Jet when it was delivered in late 2006. The aircraft is powered by two lightweight Pratt & Whitney Canada PW610F turbofan engines in aft fuselage-mounted nacelles.

Production of the Eclipse 500 was halted in mid-2008 due to a lack of funding as the result of their November 25, 2008 Chapter 11 bankruptcy declaration. The company then entered Chapter 7 liquidation on February 24, 2008. After lengthy Chapter 7 liquidation procedures, Eclipse Aerospace was confirmed as the new owner of the assets of the former Eclipse Aviation on August, 20, 2009 and opened for business on September 1, 2009. In October 2011 Eclipse Aerospace announced that they would put a new version of the aircraft, called the Eclipse 550 into production with deliveries starting in 2013.

Design & Development

The Eclipse 500 is based on the Williams V-Jet 11, which was designed by Burt Rutan's Scaled Composites in 1997 for Williams International. It was intended to be used as a testbed and demonstrator for their new FJX02 turbofan engine. The aircraft and engine debuted at the 1977 Oshkosh Airshow. The V-Jet II had an all-composite structure with a forward-swept wing, a V-tail, each fin of which was mounted on the nacelle of one of the two engines. Williams had not intended to produce the aircraft, but it attracted a lot of attention, and Eclipse Aviation was founded in 1998 to further develop and produce the aircraft. The prototype and only V-Jet II aircraft was obtained by Eclipse Aviation along with the program, and was donated to the Experimental Aircraft Association AirVenture museum in Oshkosh, Wisconsin in 2001.

June 2008 Grounding

On June 12, 2008, the Federal Aviation Administration issued Emergency Airworthiness Directive(AD) AD 2008-13-51 grounding all Eclipse 500s, following an incident at Chicago's Midway Airport. According to a National Transportation Safety Board investigation, "the airplane was trying to land at Midway when the crew encountered a sudden shift in headwinds, which the pilot sought to counter by increasing power, the standard method. But when the pilot tried to cut power a few seconds later, as the airplane touched down, the engines began accelerating to maximum power." The pilots overshot, gained altitude and shut down one engine, eventually landing without injury or damage except blown out tires.

Reports published on June 16, 2008 indicated that all 500s were compliant with the AD and cleared to fly again within one day of the AD being issued. The company indicated that the final solution to this problem was a software  change to increase the throttle range and prevent an out-of-range condition.
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Airworthiness Directive -
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Mooney Aviation Company(MAC) - noun. Aviation. The Mooney Aviation Company, Inc. (MAC) (formerly the Mooney Aircraft Company i a U.S. manufacturer of single-engined general aviation aircraft. The company has gone bankrupt and changed ownership several times. Though, among its achievements was the first pressurized single-engine, piston-powered aircraft (M22 Mustang), production of the fastest civilian single-engine, piston-powered aircraft in the world (M20TN Acclaim Type S), the first production aircraft to achieve 201 mph (323km/h) on 200 hp (150 kW) (M20J 201) and the fastest transcontinental flight in a single-engine , piston-powered production aircraft(M20k 231). All Mooney aircraft have the signature vertical stabilizer with its vertical leading edge and swept trailing edge that gives the illusion of being forward-swept.
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Federal Aviation Regulations(FAR) - noun. Aviation. The Federal Aviation Regulations, or FARs, are rules prescribed by the Federal Aviation Administration(FAA) governing all aviation activities in the United States. The FARs are part of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations(CFR). A wide variety of activities are regulated, such as airplane design, typical airline flights, pilot training activities, hot-air ballooning, lighter-than-air aircraft, man-made structure heights, obstruction lighting and marking, and even model rocket launches and model aircraft operation. The rules are designed to promote safe aviation, protecting pilots, flight attendants, passengers and the general public for unnecessary risk.
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hot-air balloon -

United Technologies -

lighter-than-air -

Oshkosh Airshow -

William's International -

Burt Rutan -

Williams V-Jet 11 -

nacelles - noun. a streamlined housing or tank for something on the outside of an aircraft or motor vehicle; the outer casing of an aircraft engine; chiefly historical. the car of an airship
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Pratt & Whitney Canada(PWC or P&WC;) - noun. Aviation. is a Canadian aircraft engine manufacturer. PWC's headquarters are in Longueuil, Quebec, just outside Montreal. It is a division of the larger US-based Pratt & Whitney(P&W;), itself a business unit of United Technologies. United Technologies has given P&WC; a world mandate for smaller aircraft engines while P&W;'s US operations develop and manufacture larger engines.

Although P&WC; is a division of P&W;, it does its own research, development, and marketing , as well as the manufacturing of its engines. The company currently has 9,200 employees worldwide, with 6,200 of them in Canada.

History

The Canadian Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Company, Ltd. was founded in November 1928 to act as a service center for P&W; aircraft engines. During World War II, it assembled Pratt & Whitney Wasp series engines built in the U.S.. In 1952, the production of Wasp engines was transferred to P&WC; so P&W; could concentrate on developing jet engines. In the late 1950's , a team of 12 P&WC; engineers began the development of the first small turbine engine in Canada, the PT6. THe first example was delivered to a customer in 1963. In 1962, the company was renamed United Aircraft of Canada, and assumed its current name in 1975.

Products

Pratt & Whitney JT12 -
Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D -
Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A/B/C -
Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6T -
Pratt & Whitney Canada PW100 -
Pratt & Whitney Canada PW200 -
Pratt & Whitney Canada PW300 -
Pratt & Whitney Canada PW400 -
Pratt & Whitney Canada PW500 -
Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600 -
Pratt & Whitney Canada PW700 -
Pratt & Whitney Canada PW800 -
Pratt & Whitney Canada PW900 -

Fleet

Pratt & Whitney Canada operate two Boeing 747SP as test beds for new engines.



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Flora & Fauna: Entomology and the Amateur Naturalist

Mammals

aardwolf - noun. Zoology. South African carnivorous fox-like quadruped

addax - spiral-horned antelope dwelling in the Sahara desert

agouti - noun. a large, long-legged burrowing rodent related to the guinea pig, native to Central and South America

anoa - noun. a small deer-like water buffalo, native to Sulawesi ORIGIN: mid 19th cent. : a local name

aurochs - noun. Zoology. an extinct wild ox

antechinus - noun. Zoology. a marsupial mouse of shrew-like habits and appearance, found in Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania

aye-aye - noun. Zoology. a rare nocturnal Madagascan primate allied to the lemurs. It has rodent-like incisor teeth and an elongated twig-like finger on each hand with which it pries insects from bark

babirusa - noun. Zoology.a forest-dwelling wild pig with several upturned horn-like tusks, native to Malaysia ORIGIN: late 17th cent. : from Malay, from babi 'hog' + rusa 'deer'

bandicoot - noun. Zoology. a mainly insectivorous marsupial native to Australia and New Guinea

bangtail - noun. Zoology. mustang or wild horse

banteng - noun. Zoology. a wild ox of Southeast Asia

barasingha - noun. Zoology. a deer species found in isolated localities in northern and central India, and southwestern Nepal. Antlers are 10 to 14 tines on a stag, though some have been known to have up to 20

beira - noun. Zoology. a pygmy antelope

bharal - noun. Zoology.a bluish-gray Himalayan goat

binturong - noun. Zoology. a civet of southeastern Asia with a long prehensile tail

biscacha - noun. Zoology. burrowing South American rodent

blauwbok - noun. Zoology.extinct bluish-colored antelope of southern Africa

borzoi - noun. Zoology. a wolf hound

brach - noun. Zoology. a female hunting hound

brachet - noun. Zoology. whelp; brat; bitch hound

bullock - noun. Zoology. an ox or castrated bull

caple - noun. Zoology. a horse

caracal - noun. Zoology. long-legged nocturnal cat of African and Asian savannahs with long ears

dhole - noun. Zoology. a wild asian dog

diprotodon - noun. Zoology. gigantic prehistoric marsupial with two incisors in the lower jaw

dobbin - noun. Zoology. a work horse

douroucouli - noun. Zoology. a small South American nocturnal monkey

isatis - noun. Zoology. Arctic Fox

leveret - noun. Zoology. a hare in its first year; a mistress

Birds


aasvogel - South African vulture

avocet - noun. Zoology. a long-legged wading bird with a slender upturned bill and strikingly patterned plumage

adzebill(pokoriki)- prehistoric flightless bird of New Zealand

aepyornis(Elephant Bird - gigantic flightless bird of Madagascar

aberdevine - alternate name for the siskin

accentor - a songbird

adjutant - noun. a large black and white stork with massive bill and a bare head and neck, found in India and Southeast Asia; a military officer who acts as an administrative assistant to a senior officer

anhinga - noun. Zoology. a long-necked fish-eating tropical American bird

barbet - noun. Zoology. a stout billed tropical bird

bittern - noun. Zoology. a small heron

siskin - a small songbird related to the goldfinch, including the pine siskin of North America with dark-streaked plumage, notched tail, and touches of yellow on its wings and tail

Fish

acipenser - sturgeon

amberjack - noun. Zoology. spiny-finned Atlantic sport fish

blenny - noun. Zoology. a small elongated marine fish

cusk - noun. Zoology. large Atlantic fish-like cod

dabchick - noun. Zoology. small grebe

duarf - noun. Mythology. fictitious nineteen-toed sloth from Erewhon



Amphibian & Reptiles

amphiuma - noun. Zoology. a fully aquatic eel-like American salamander with two pairs of very small limbs, found in stagnant water and swamps in the southeastern U.S.

anole - noun. Zoology. a small, mainly arboreal American lizard with a throat fan that (in the male) is typically bright-colored. Anoles have some ability to change color

axoloti - noun. Zoology. A Mexican salamander which in natural conditions retains aquatic newt-like larval form throughout life but is able to breed

Insects

culex - noun. Zoology. a mosquito

cleg - noun. Zoology. a horse fly


Bodies of Animals

sclerites -

thorax -

notum -

sternum -

pleuron -

scutellum -

coxa -

trochanter - noun. Anatomy. any of two bony protuberances by which muscles are attached to the upper part of the thigh bone; Entomology the small second segment of the leg of an insect, between the coxa and the femur.

femur - noun. the bone of the thigh or the upper hind limb, articulating at the hip and knee;2. Zoology. the third segment of the leg in insects and some other arthropods, typically the longest and thickest segment.

tibial - noun. Anatomy. the inner and typically larger of the two bones between the knee and the ankle(or the equivalent joints in other terrestrial vertebrates), parallel with the fibula; Zoology. the tibiotarsus of a bird; Entomology. the fourth segment of the leg of an insect, between the femur and the tarsus.

fibula - noun. Anatomy. the outer and usually smaller of the two bones between the knee and the ankle in humans(or the equivalent joints in other terrestrial vertebrates), parallel with the tibia 2. Archaeology. a brooch or clasp

tibia - noun. Anatomy. the inner and typically larger of the two bones between the knee and the ankle(or equivalent joints in other terrestrial vertebrates), parallel with the fibula. 2. Zoology. the tibiotarsus of a bird 3. Entomology. the fourth segment of the leg of an insect, between the femur and the tarsus.

tarsus - noun. Anatomy. a group of small bones between the main part of the hind limb and the metatarsus in terrestrial vertebrates. The seven bones of the human tarsus form the ankle and upper part of the foot. They are the talus, calcaneus, navicular, and cuboid and the three cuneiform bones; Zoology. the shank or tarsometatarsus of the leg of a bird or reptile; Zoology. the foot or fifth joint of the leg of an insect or other arthropod, typically consisting of several small segments and ending in a claw 2. Anatomy. a thin sheet of fibrous connective tissue which supports the edge of each eyelid ORIGIN: late Middle English: modern Latin, from Greek tarsos 'flat of the foot, the eyelid.'

Tarsus - an ancient city in southern Turkey, now a market town. It is the birthplace of Saint Paul.

tarsometatarsus - noun. Zoology. a long bone in the lower leg of birds and some reptiles, formed by the fusion of tarsal and metatarsal structures.

tarsal - adjective. Anatomy & Zoology. of or relating to the tarsus; noun. a bone of the tarsus.

metatarsal - noun. any of the bones of the foot; any of the equivalent bones in an animal's hind limbs

metatarsus - noun. the group of bones in the foot, between the ankle and the toes; this part of the foot; the equivalent group of bones in any animal's hind limbs

calcaneus - noun. Anatomy. the large bone forming the heel. It articulates with the cuboid bone of the foot and the talus bone of the ankle, and the Achilles tendon(or tendo calcaneus) is attached to it.

navicular - adjective. chiefly archaic. boat-shaped; 2. noun. (also navicular bone) a boat-shaped bone in the ankle or wrist, esp. that in the ankle between the talus and the cuneiform bones 3. (also navicular disease or navicular syndrome) a chronic disorder of the navicular bone in horses, causing lameness in the front feet ORIGIN: late Middle English : from French naviculaire or late Latin navicularis, from Latin navicula 'little ship,' diminutive of navis.

cuboid - adjective. more or less cubic in shape 2. Geometry. a solid that has six rectangular faces at right angles to each other 3. Anatomy. (also cuboid bone) a squat tarsal bone on the outer side of the foot, articulating with the heel bone and the fourth and fifth metatarsals.

cuneiform - adjective. denoting or relating to the wedge-shaped characters used in the ancient writing systems of Mesopotamia, Persia, and Ugarit, surviving mainly impressed on clay tablets; noun. cuneiform writing 2. Anatomy. denoting three bones of the tarsus(ankle) between the navicular bone and the metatarsals. 3. Chiefly. Biology. wedge-shaped

tibiotarsus - noun. Zoology. the bone in a bird's leg corresponding to the tibia, fused at the lower end with some bones of the tarsus.

pretarsus - noun. the terminal outgrowth of the tarsus.

The Insect Head

vertex -

ocelli -

compound eye -

frons -

palps -

clypeus -

labrum -

antenna -

gena -

mandible -

maxilla -

labium -

Labrum -

palpi -

maxillae -



The Insect Body

abdomen -

labium -

cercus -

spiracles -




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Words of 8:24:13

extirpate - verb. root out and destroy completely

mullein - noun. Botany. a herbaceous plant of the figwort family with woolly leaves and tall spikes of yellow flowers, native to Eurasia but now widely and commonly distributed. Genus Verbascum, family Scrophulariaceae: several species, in particular the widespread common (or great) mullein ( V. thapsus). ORIGIN: late Middle English: from Old French moleine, of Celtic origin; compare with the Breton melen, Cornish and Welsh melyn 'yellow.'

Breton - noun. a native of Brittany 2. the Celtic language of Brittany, related to Cornish; adjective. of or relating to Brittany or its people or language

Andre, Breton -

euthalian apparatus - noun. The Euthalian Apparatus is a collection of additional editorial material, such as divisions of text, lists, and summaries, to the New Testament's Book of Acts, Catholic epistles, and Pauline epistles. This additional material appears at the beginnings of books, in the margin of text, and at the ends of books, as well as in line and paragraph separations. This material is traditionally associated with the name of Euthalius.

euthecodon - noun. Zoology. Euthecodon is an extinct genus of long-snouted crocodyline crocodilians. It was common throughout much of Africa during the Neogene, with fossils being especially common in Kenya. It existed from the Early Miocene to the Early Pleistocene.
eutherapsida -

eutheria - noun. Zoology. a major group of mammals that comprises the placentals.

euthrix potatoria -

euthyphro dilemma -

The Voyage of the Space Beagle(1950) - is a classic novel of science fiction by A.E. van Vogt in the space opera sub-genera. The novel is a "fix-up" compilation of four previously published novels.

fission - noun. the action of dividing or splitting something into two or more parts; short for NUCLEAR FISSION; Biology. reproduction by means of a cell or organism dividing into two or more new cells or organisms; verb. [intrans.] (chiefly of atoms) undergo fission ORIGIN: early 17th cent.: from Latin fissio(n-), from findere 'to split.'


Fission, Nuclear Chemistry, and the Symbols of Science

intransitive - adjective. (of a verb or a sense or use of a verb) not taking a direct object, e.g., look in look at the sky. The opposite of TRANSITIVE.

spontaneous fission(SF) - noun. Chemistry. is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements, because the nuclear binding energy of the elements reaches its maximum at an atomic mass number greater than about 58 atomic mass units (u)

u - abbreviation. Physics. denoting quantum states or wave functions that change sign on inversion through the origin. The opposite of g .

- symbol [in combination]. (in units of measurement micro- (10(-6): : direct readout of concentration in ug or mg/L.

u - noun. (pl. Us or U's). 1. the twenty-first letter of the alphabet; denoting the next after T in a set of items or categories, etc. 2. (U)

g - abbreviation. Chemistry. gas; gelding; gram(s); Physics. denoting quantum states or wave functions that do not change a sign on inversion through the origin. The opposite of u . ORIGIN: from German gerade 'even.'

g - Symbol. Physics. the acceleration due to gravity, equal to 9.81 m s(-2)

s - abbreviation:
• second(s).
• Law. section (of an act).
• shilling(s).
• Grammar. singular.
• Chemistry. soilid.
• (in genealogies) son(s).
• succeeded.
• Chemistry. denoting electrons and orbitals possessing zero angular momentum and total symmetry : s-electrons. [ORIGIN: s from sharp, originally applied to lines in atomic spectra.]

s - symbol. (in mathematical formulae) distance

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The Bauhaus

Bauhaus - noun. Staatliches Bauhaus, commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. It operated from 1919 to 1933. At that time the German term Bauhaus, literally "house of construction", stood for "School of Building."

The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar. In spite of its name, and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department during the first years of its existence. Nonetheless it was founded with the idea of creating a "total" work of art in which all arts, including architecture, would eventually be brought together. The Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design. The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography.

The school existed in three German cities {Weimar from 1919 to 1925, Dessau from 1925-1932, and Berlin from 1932-1933), under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius from 1919-1928, Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 until 1933, when the school was closed by its own leadership under pressure from the Nazi regime at the beginning of the Degenerative Art Exhibit hosted by Adolf Hitler which set to abolish all artworks which did not exemplify the popularity and beliefs of the Nazi regime.

The changes of venue and leadership resulted in constant shifting of focus, technique, instructors, and politics. For instance: the pottery shop was discontinued when the school moved from Weimar to Dessau, even though it had been an important revenue source; when Mies van der Rohe took over the school in 1930, he transformed it into a private school, and would not allow any supporters of Hannes Meyer to attend it.

Walter Gropius -

Hannes Meyer -

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe -

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Diseases, Bacteria, and Viruses

Malaria - noun. Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans(a type of unicellular microorganism) of the genus Plasmodium. Commonly, the disease is transmitted via a bite from an infected female Anopheles mosquito, which introduces the organisms from its saliva into the person's circulatory system. In the blood, the protists travel to the liver to mature and reproduce. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever and headache, which in severe cases can progress to coma or death. The disease is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions in a broad band around the equator, including much of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas.

Five species of Plasmodium can infect and be transmitted by humans. The vast majority of deaths are caused by P. falciparum and P. vivax, while P. ovale and P. malariae cause a generally milder form of malaria that is rarely fatal. The zoonotic species P. knowlesi, prevalent in Southeast ASia, causes malaria in maquaes

zoonotic -

Yellow fever -

dengue fever -

dysentery -

cholera - noun. Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms are watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission occurs primarily by drinking water or eating food that has been contaminated by the feces(waste product) of an infected person, including one with no apparent symptoms. The severity of the diarrhea and vomiting can lead to rapid hydration and electrolyte imbalance, and death in some cases. The primary treatment is oral rehydration therapy, typically with oral rehydration solution, to replace water and electrolytes. If this is not tolerated or does not provide improvement fast enough, intravenous fluids can also be used. Antibacterial drugs are beneficial in those with severe disease to shorten its duration and severity. Worldwide, it affects 3-5 million people and causes 100,000 to 130,000 deaths a year as of 2010. Cholera was one of the earliest infections to be studied by epidemiological methods.

turgor - noun. chiefly Botany. the state of turgidity and resulting rigidity of cells(or tissues), typically due to the absorption of fluid; wrinkled-hands

Dukoral - noun. Medicine. an orally administered, inactivated whole cell vaccine for Cholera, has an overall efficacy of about 52% during the first year after being given and 62% in the second yea, with minimal side effects.

ebola -

influenza -

salmonella -

shigella -

enterobacteriacae -

pseudomonas -

moraxella -

heliobacter -

stenotrophomonas -

bdellovibrio -

acetic acid bacteria -

legionella -

cyanobacteria -

spirochaetes -

green sulfur -

green non-sulfur bacteria -

Hemophilus influenze -

Klebsiella pneumonia -

Legionella pneumophila -

Pseudomonas aeruginosa -

rickettsia - any of a group of very small bacteria that includes the causative agents of typhus and various other febrile diseases in humans. Like viruses, many of them can only grow inside living cells, and they are frequently transmitted by mites, ticks, or lice ORIGIN: modern Latin, named after Howard Taylor Ricketts (b. 1871-1910), American pathologist.

Howard Taylor Ricketts -

escherichia coli -

proteus mirabilis -

enterobacter cloacae -

serratia marcescens -

heliobacter pylori -

salmonella enteritidis -

salmonella typhi -

typhus -

tetanus -

tuberculosis -

nosocomial infections -

acinetobacter baumannii -

keratinocytes -

verrucae -

oropharynx - noun. Anatomy. the part of the pharynx that lies between the soft palate and the hyoid bone.

hyoid - noun. Anatomy & Zoology. a U-shaped bone in the neck that supports the tongue; Adjective. of or relating to this bone or structures associated with it. ORIGIN: early 19th cent.: via French from modern Latin hyoides, from Greek huoeides 'shaped like the letter upsilon (y).'

colposcopy -

cauterizing loop -

Papanicolaou -

cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN) -

vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia(VIN) -

penile intraepithelial neoplasia(PIN) -

anal intraepithelial neoplasia(AIN) -

plantar warts -

flat warts -

anogenital warts -

epidermodysplasia verruciformis -

focal epithelial hyperplasia -

oral papillomas -

oropharyngeal cancer -

verrucous cyst -

laryngeal papillomatosis -

vulvar cancer -

vaginal cancer -

penile cancer -

anal cancer -

HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (OSCC) -

p53 protein -

ubiquitin ligase -

vertically transmitted infection - noun. Medicine. is an infection caused by bacteria, viruses or, in rare cases, parasites transmitted directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth. Nutritional deficiencies may exacerbate the risks of perinatal infection.

Alternative Terminology

The transmission can also be called mother-to-child transmission.

A vertically transmitted infection can be called a perinatal infection if t is transmitted in the perinatal period, which is the period starting at a gestational age of 22 to 28 weeks (with regional variations in the definition) and ending 7 completed days after birth. The term congenital infection is also sometimes used.

Routes of Transmission

The Main routes of transmission of vertically transmitted infections are across the placenta (transplacental) and across the female reproductive tract during childbirth.

Transplacental

The embryo and fetus have little or no immune function. They depend on the immune function of their mother. Several pathogens can cross the placenta and cause (perinatal) infection. Often microorganisms that produce minor illness in the mother are very dangerous for the developing embryo or fetus. This can result in spontaneous abortion or major developmental disorders. For many infections, the baby is more at risk at particular stages of pregnancy. Problems related to perinatal infections are not always directly noticeable.

The term TORCH complex refers to a set of several different infections that may be caused by transplacental infections.

transplacental -

TORCH complex -

perinatal - adjective. Medicine. of or relating to the time, usually a number of weeks, immediately before and after birth.

afterbirth - noun. the placenta and fetal membranes discharged from the uterus after the birth of offspring.

prenatal -

natal -

embryo -

The Vagina: Sweat, Sex, and Birth

urethra -

uterus - noun. (from Latin "uterus" plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ of most mammals including humans. One end, the cervix

cervix -

fallopian tube -

pubic bone -

g-spot -

sigmoid colon -

fornix -

rectum -

anus -

bladder -

uterine veins -

ovarian artery -

mullerian duct -

vagina -

vulva -

mons -

labia -

clitoris -

orgasm -

cock -

penis -

phallus -

testicles -

ovary -

anus -

prostate -

nipples -

areolas -

bacteremia -

secondary meningitis -

meningitis -

human papillomavirus -

measles -

mumps -

rubella -

myxomatosis -

purulent - adjective. Medicine. consisting of, containing, or discharging pus

pasteurellosis - noun. a bacterial infection commonly affecting animals and sometimes transferred to humans through bites and scratches. The causative bacteria are Gram-negative rods of the genus Pasteurella, in particular P. multocida. ORIGIN: early 20th cent.: from French pasteurellose (from the name pasteur) + OSIS.

chloroamphenicol -

Pasteurellaceae -

negativicutes -

fusobacteria -

synergistetes -

elusimicrobia -

proteobacteria -

aquificae -

chlamydiae -

bacteroidetes -

chlorobi -

cyanobacteria -

fibrobacteres -

verrucomicrobia -

planctomycetes -

spirochetes -

acidobacteria -

monoderm bacteria -

actinobacteria -

firmicutes -

thermotogae -

chloroflexi -

Hemorrhagic septicemia -

sepsis -

intransigence -  

intransigent -

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Oceania: Countries, Provinces, States, and Societies of the East

Indonesia - officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 17,508 islands. It encompasses 34 provinces with over 238 million people, making it the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia's republic form of government comprises an elected legislature and president. The nation's capital is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, Philippines, Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia is a founding member of ASEAN and a member of the G-20 major economies. The Indonesian economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP.

The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade region since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious, and political models from the early centuries CE, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders brought the now-dominant Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolize trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery.  Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, Indonesia secured its independence after World War II. Indonesia's history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, corruption, separatism, a democratization process, and periods of rapid economic change.

Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest- and politically dominant- ethnic group are the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity", literally, "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread.
""
separatism - noun. the advocacy or practice of separation of a certain group of people from a larger body on the basis of ethnicity, religion, or gender

Islands of Maluku or the Moluccas - are an archipelago within Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west of New Guinea, and north and east of Timor. The islands were also historically known as the "Spice Islands" by the Chinese and Europeans, but this term has also been applied to other islands outside of Indonesia.

Most of the islands are mountainous, some with active volcanoes, and enjoy a wet climate. The vegetation of the small and narrow islands, encompassed by the sea, are very luxuriant; including rain forests, sago, rice, and the famous spices- nutmeg, mace, and cloves, among others. Though originally Melanesian, many island populations especially in the Banda Islands, were killed off in the 17th century during the Spice wars. A second influx of Austronesian immigrants began in the early twentieth century under the Dutch and continued in the Indonesian era.

The Maluku Islands formed a single province since Indonesian independence until 1999 when it was split into two provinces. A new province, North Maluku, incorporates the area between Morotai and Sula, with the arc of islands from Buru and Seram to Wetar remaining within the existing Maluku Province. North Maluku is predominately Muslim and its capital is Ternate. Maluku province has a larger Christian population and its capital is Ambon.

Between 1999 and 2002, a conflict between Muslims and Christians killed thousands and displaced half a million people.

"Spice Islands" most commonly refers to the Maluku Islands and often also the small volcanic Banda Islands, once the only source of mace and nutmeg. This nickname should not be confused with Grenada, which is commonly known as the "Island of Spice". The term has also been used less commonly in reference to other islands known for their spice production, notably Zanzibar Archipelago.

Zanzibar Archipelago -

Banda Islands -

Austronesian -

Morotai -

Sula -

Buru -

Seram -

Wetar -

Ternate -

Ambon -

Molucca Sea Collision Zone -

Halmahera Plate -

Maluku frogfish -

Maluku Tenggara Barat -

Malukugalu -

Maluku Utara -

Age of Discovery -

Srivijaya -

Majapahit -

ASEAN -

G-20 major economies -

Papua New Guinea -

East Timor -

Sulawesi -

Malaysia -

Singapore -

Philippines -

Palau -

Andaman and Nicobar Islands -

Jakarta -

nexian - noun. Telecommunications. a mobile phone company in Indonesia. Started in 2006 by Martano Jayakusuma. They were the first local brand who achieved 100,000 locally produced handsets in six months. Nexian possesses the second largest market share of handheld devices in the world with 25% of mobile phones worldwide. Nexian creates QWERTY phones supported by Indonesian mobile operators. Phones with two SIM card slots retail at a price between 299,000 to 1,299,000 Indonesian rupiah.

Indonesian rupiah - noun. the basic monetary unit of Indonesia, equal to 100 yen.

nexin -

nexis -

nexit -

nexit ventures -

nexito -

nexity -

nexiuz -

nexium -

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Carthage and Punic: Antiquity and Linguistics

Cyrillic -

Coptic -

Glagolitic -

Diacritics -

Latin -

Greek -

Armenian -

Georgian -

Ethiopic -

N'Ko -

abuja -

Tifinagh - noun. Linguistics. is a series of abjad and alphabetic scripts used by some Berber peoples, notably the Tuareg, to write the Berber language. A modern derivate of the traditional script, known as Neo-Tifinagh, was introduced in the 20th century. It is not in widespread use as a means of daily communication, but often serves to a assert a Berber identity politically and symbolically. A slightly modified version of the traditional script called Tifinagh Ircam, is used in a limited number of Moroccan elementary schools in teaching the Berber language to children. The word tifinagh is thought to be a Berberized feminine plural cognate of Punic, through the Berber feminine prefix ti- and Latin Punicus; thus tifinagh could possibly mean "the Phoenician (letters)" or "the Punic letters."

ORIGINS

Tifinagh may have descended from a script sometimes named the Libyan or Libyco-Berber script although the descent is unclear and uncertain. This was widely used by speakers of Berber languages all across North Africa and on the Canary Islands. It is attested from the 3rd century BC to the 3rd century AD. Its origin is uncertain, with some scholars suggesting it is related to the Punic alphabet

punic - The Punic or Carthaginian or Phoenicia-Punic language is an extinct language formerly spoken in the Mediterranean region of North Africa and several Mediterranean islands, by the Punic and Carthaginian people-- who were a Phoenician-descended culture with canaanitized Berbers as a majority, mixed with a minority of Phoenicians, largely from Sidon and Tyre, from ca. 800 BC to 600 AD. The Punic people stayed in contact with Phoenicia until the Destruction of Carthage by the Roman Republic in 146 BC.

DESCRIPTION - Punic is an extinct variety of the Phoenician language spoken in the overseas Phoenician empire in North Africa, including Carthage, and the Mediterranean. It is known from inscriptions (most of them religious formulae)and personal name evidence. The play Poenulus by Plautus contains a few lines spoken in Punic, which have been subject to some research because, unlike inscriptions, they largely preserve the vowels.

The Punic language has 20 consonants.

Augustine of Hippo - is generally considered the last major ancient writer to have some knowledge of Punic, and is considered "our primary source on the survival of [late] Punic". According to him, the Punic language was still spoken in his region (North Africa) in the 5th century AD, centuries after the fall of Carthage, and there were still people who called themselves "chanani" (Canaanite, i.e.: Carthaginian) at that time. Writing around AD 401, he says:

Quae lingua improbatur abs te, nega Punicis libris, ut a viris doctissimis proditur, multa sapienter esse mandata memoriae. Poeniteat te certe ibi natum, ubi huius linguae cunabula recalent.

And if the Punic language is rejected by you, you virtually deny what has been admitted by most learned men, that many things have been wisely preserved from oblivion in books written in the Punic tongue. Nay, you ought even to be ashamed of having been born in the country in which the cradle of this language is still warm.

abjad -

elided -

Hasdrubal - noun. Proper name. (in Latin transliteration; the original Phoenician form of the name was Azruba'al, literally "the help of Baal" was the name of a King and of several Carthaginian generals of the Punic Wars. Among the most famous are:

• original name of Carthaginian Clitomachus (philosopher)
• Hasdrubal I of Carthage was the Magonid king of Ancient Carthage from 530 to 510 BC.
• Hasdrubal (son of Hamilear) fought in Sicily
• Hasdrubal the Fair (c. 270 BC - 221 BC), son-in-law of Hamilcar Barca
• Hasdrubal (Barcid))245-207 BC), son of Hamilcar Barca and brother of Hannibal and Mago
• Hasdrubal Gisco (died 202 BC), another commander in the Second Punic War.
• Hasdrubal the Boeotarch was also the general of Punic forces in the Third Punic War c. 146 BC.
• Hasdrubal, commander of the service corps, a Carthaginian officer in the Second Punic War c. 218 BC

Ugarit - an ancient port and Bronze Age trading city in northern Syria. Its people spoke a Semitic language written in a distinctive cuneiform alphabet.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Plato

platonism -

epistemology -

idealism -

realism -

demiurge -

theory of forms -

transcendentals -

Form of the Good -

Third man argument -

Euthyphro dilemma -

Five regimes -

Philosopher king -

Atlantis -

Ring of Gyges -

The cave -

The divided line -

The sun -

Ship of state -

Myth of Er -

The chariot -

Socratic problem -


Platonic Academy -

Clitomachus (philosopher) - noun. Greek history. (Clitomachus also Cleitomachus or Kleitomachos; 187/6-110/09 BC) originally named Hasdrubal, was a Carthaginian who came to Athens in 163/2 BC and studied philosophy under the name Carneades. He became head of the Platonic Academy around 127/6 BC. He was an Academic skeptic like his master. Nothing survives of his writings, which were dedicated to making known the views of Carneades, but Cicero made use of them for some of his works.

Platonic Academy -

Lyceum -

Aristotle -

Philo de Larissa

Neoplatonism -

Justinian 1 -

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Languages, Linguistics, Dialectics, and Their Histories


Devanagari -

Old Persian -

Gujarati -

Gurmukhi -

Bengali -

Tamil -

Oriya -

Kannada -

Malayalam -

Limbu -

Sinhala -

Telugu -

Kharoshthi -

Syloti Nagri -

Phags-pa -

Thaana -

Syriac -

Hebrew -

Arabic -

Hiragana -

Katakana -

Hangul -

Bopomofo -

Mongolian -

Radicals -

Kanbun -

Yi Syllables -

Thai -

Khmer -

Myanmar -

Tai Le -

Lao -

Buginese -

Balinese -

Buhid -

Hanunoo -

Tagalog -

Tagbanwa -

Deseret -

Osmanya -

Shavian -
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Ugaritic -

ᚁ beith -

ᚂ luis -

ᚃ fearn -

ᚄ sail -

ᚅ nion -

ᚆ uath -

ᚇ dair -

ᚈ tinne -

ᚉ coll -

ᚊ ceirt -

ᚋ muin -

ᚌ gort -

ᚍ ngeadal -

ᚎ straif -

ᚏ ruis -

ᚐ ailm -

ᚑ onn -

ᚒ ur -

ᚓ eadhadh -

ᚔ iodhadh -

ᚕ eabhadh -

ᚖ or -

ᚗ uilleann -

ᚘ ifin -

ᚙ eamhancholl -

ᚚ peith -

᚛ feather mark -

᚜ reversed feather mark -

  space mark -


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Ogham -

Gothic -

Old Italic -

Runic -

Linear B -

Cypriot Syllabary -

Sumero-Akkadian

Akkadian -

Sumero -

Counting Rod Numerals -



• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •


bastion - noun. a projecting part of a fortification built at an angle to the line of a wall, so as to allow defensive fire in several directions

baize - noun. a coarse, felt-like, woolen material that is typically green, used for covering pool tables, card tables, and aprons. ORIGIN: late 16th cent.: from French baies, feminine plural of bai 'chestnut-colored', treated as a singular noun. The name is presumably from the original color of the cloth, although several colors are recorded.

hutus -

chanson -

labiate -

stridulation - verb. (typically of an insect, esp. a male cricket or grasshopper) make a shrill sound through the practice of by rubbing body parts together

poppet - noun. (also poppet valve) Engineering. a mushroom-shaped valve with a flat end piece that is lifted in and out of an opening by an axial rod 2. chiefly historical. a small figure of a human being used in sorcery and witchcraft 3. British. informal. an endearingly sweet or pretty child or young girl (often used an an affectionate form of address). ORIGIN: late Middle English: based on Latin pup[p]a 'girl, doll.' Compare with PUPPET.

muscadet - noun. a dry white wine from the part of the Loire region in France nearest the west coast. ORIGIN: French, from muscade 'nutmeg, from musc 'musk.'

muscae volitantes - plural noun. Medicine. dark specks appearing to float before the eyes, generally caused by particles in the vitreous humor of the eye. ORIGIN: mid 18th cent.: Latin, literally 'flying flies.'

mistral - noun. a strong, cold northwesterly wind that blows through the Rhone valley and southern France into the Mediterranean, mainly in winter

provender - noun. often humorous. food. dated. animal fodder

ambigram - an ambigram is a word, art form, or other symbolic representation, whose elements retain meaning when viewed or interpreted from a different direction, perspective, or orientation.

demesne - noun. historical. land attached to a manor and retained for the owner's own use 2. the lands of an estate 3. Archaic. a region or domain 4. Historical. Law. possession of real property in one's own right.

circumlocution - (also called periphrasis, circumduction, circumvolution, periphrasis, or ambage) is an ambiguous or roundabout figure of speech

Ambaghai Khan - was a khan of Khamag Mongol in 1149-1156, one of the great grandson Khaidu Khan and the cousin and predecessor of Hotula Khan. During his rule, he was captured by the Tatars under the commands of the Chinese Jin Dynasty in response to the Mongols' growing power.

In 1211 Genghis Khan began the Mongol-Jin Dynasty War, causing the eventual fall of the Jin Dynasty, in sworn revenge of Ambaghai's kidnapping and execution. Ambaghai was a relative of Yesugei and Genghis Khan.

Ambagamuwa Divisional Secretariat - Ambagamuwa Divisional Secretariat is a Divisional Secretariat of Nuwara Eliya District, of Central Province, Sri Lanka.

aphasic - noun/adjective. loss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage.

effluent - noun. liquid waste or sewage discharged into a river or the sea

ruderal - adjective. Botany. (of a plant) growing on waste ground or among refuse

milfoil - noun. the common Eurasian yarrow 2. (also water milfoil) a widely distributed and highly invasive aquatic plant with whorls of fine submerged leaves and wind-pollinated flowers ORIGIN: Middle English: via Old French from Latin millefolium, from mille 'thousand' + folium 'leaf.'

glebe - noun. historical. a piece of land serving as part of a clergyman's benefice and providing income; archaic. land; fields

arable - adjective. (of land) used or suitable for growing crops

tillage - noun. the preparation of land for growing crops

appurtenance - noun. an accessory or other item associated with a particular activity or style of living

curtilage - noun. Law. an area of land attached to a house and forming one enclosure with it

tilth - noun. cultivation of land; tillage

agrarian - adjective. of or relating to cultivated land or the cultivation of land 2. noun. a person who advocates a redistribution of landed property

peneplain - noun. Geology. a more or less level land surface produced by erosion over a long period, undisturbed by crustal movement

polder - noun. a low-lying land reclaimed from the sea or river and protected by dikes, esp. in the Netherlands

messuage - noun. Law. a dwelling house with outbuildings and land assigned to its use

epistemology - noun. Philosophy. the theory of knowledge, esp. with regard to its methods, validity, and scope. Epistemology is the investigation of what distinguishes justified belief from opinion.

pleionosis - the habit of exaggerating one's own importance

wesolowskana - noun. is a spider genus of the Salticidae family (jumping spiders).Both described species are endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. The genus should possibly be included in the genus Pseudicius. It was renamed from its original name Luxuria, which was already in use for a genus of mollusks.

pilpul - a subtle debate between rabbinical scholars over the details of the Talmud

ungulate - noun. Zoology. a hoofed mammal

Artiodactyla - noun. Zoology. an order of mammals that comprises the even-toed ungulates.

Cetacea - noun. Zoology. an order of marine mammals that comprises the whales, dolphins, and porpoises. These have a streamlined hairless body, no hind limbs, a horizontal tail fin, and a blowhole on top of the head for breathing.

The order Cetacea includes the marine mammals commonly known as whales, dolphins, and porpoises. Cetus is Latin and is used in biological names to mean "whale"; its original meaning, "large sea animal", was more general ORIGIN: Ancient Greek ketos, "whale" or "any huge fish or sea monster." In Greek mythology, the monster Perseus defeated was called Ceto, which is depicted by the constellation of Cetus. Cetology is the branch of marine science associated with the study of cetaceans

malacology - noun. the branch of zoology that deals with mollusks. Compare with Conchology.

Mysticeti -

Odontoceti -

Words For a Ship to Sea Poem

abacinate - verb. to blind by putting a hot copper basin near someone's eyes

abderian - adjective. given to incessant or idiotic laughter

abligurition - verb. excessive spending on food and drink

accidia - adjective. a feeling of being unable to think or act due to excessive sadness

acrasia - verb. acting against one's own judgement, or lacking self-control

acronycal - noun. occurring at sunset

aeolist - noun. a pompous windy bore who pretends to have inspiration

aflunters - adjective. in a messy or disordered state

agelast - noun. a person who never laughs

algophobic - noun. a fear of pain

alterocentric - noun. someone whose life revolves around other people

anogenetic - verb. not producing new work or original knowledge

anthropolatry - verb. the worship of a human as though they were a god

apikoros - noun. a Jewish person who does not follow Jewish law

astereognosis - noun. the loss of the ability to recognize shapes by touch

aubade - noun. a love song which is sung at dawn

aureate - adjective. pertaining to the fancy or flowery words used by poets

autohagiographer - noun. a person who speaks or writes in a smug way about their life and accomplishments

bawd -

clinostat -

lecithin -

asclepias -

vernonia -

adonis -

lenticel -

phyllotaxis -

stoma -

vivarium -

bionomics -

sertule -

hydathode -

zoophyte -

cinquefoil -

phytotoxin -

autotrophic -

desmid - noun. Biology. a single-celled, freshwater alga that appears to be comprised for two rigid cels with a shared nucleus . The presence of desmids is usually an indicator of polliue sor

angioscope -

grain -

leaf -

cotton -

daisy -

seed -

class -

breed -

fix -

puccoon -

edaphic -

myrmecoid -

irido -

integumation -

lorenz oken -

oken -

okenfuss -

Marcello Malpighi -

exodermis -

lychnis -

refugium -

biosatellite -

telome -

lithoid(al) -

quadrat -

tare -

barberry -

silvic -

tapetum -

blanch -

natant -

deciduous -

theobromine -

aegilops -

centaury -

centaure -

holism -

hepatic -

virgin -

lattice -

nomenclature -

sphagnum -

social -

major -

asphodel -

perfect -

prosody -

tobacco -

aconite -

indigo -

florist -

wood -

cram -

grind -

organic -

resin -

leguminous -

studious -

flax -

orthoepy -

jalap -

ginseng -

humanities -

bluebell -

seminar -

health -

marigold -

pergola -

pink -

jute -

divinity -

medical -

salvia -

spurge -

stand -

amaryllis -

clover -

graft -

propagate -

polyphiloprogenitive -

view -

peony -

milk -

mustard -

rhubarb -

blueberry -

strawberry -

raspberry -

papaya -

watermelon -

cantaloupe -

guava -

nectarine -

plum -

avocado -

rhododendron -

rose -

tulip -

buffalo grass -

grass -

cattail -

tulip -

turnip -

potato -

rutabaga -

parsnip -

punish -

disdain -

error -

nuisance -

upset -

anger -

irk -

discipline -

underwater -

water -

lily -

waterlily -

pond -

alligator -

alligator snapping turtle -

painted turtle -

box turtle -

salamander -

newt -

bullfrog -

goldfish -

bluegill -

haddock -

carp -

bulldog fish -

catfish -

heron -

great blue heron -

great horned owl -

barn owl -

owl -

grubs -

mayfly -

greenfly -

biting fly

horsefly -

seashell -

chickweed -

student -

investigate -

study -

caladium -

fat -

dioecious -

floriculture -

flora -

fauna -

greenhouse -

flowerpot -

milkwort -

winterkill -

bookworm -

community -

rubber -

onion -

otter - noun. a semiaquatic fish-eating mammal of the weasel family, with an elongated body, dense fur, and webbed feet. Lutra and other genera, family Mustelidae: several species, including the river otter.

carrot - noun. a tapering orange-colored root eaten as a vegetable. 2. a cultivated plant of the parsley family with feathery leaves, which yields this vegetable. Daucus carota, family Umbelliferae: two subspecies and many varieties; wild forms lack the swollen root. 3. an offer of something enticing as a means of persuasion (often contrasted with the threat of something punitive or unwelcome)

vegetable - noun. a plant or part of a plant used as food, typically as a accompaniment to meat or fish, such as a cabbage, potato, carrot, or bean 2. informal offensive. a person who is incapable of normal mental or physical activity, esp., through brain damage; informal. a person with a dull or inactive life

fruit - noun. the sweet and fleshy product of a tree or other plant that contains seed and can be eaten as food; Botany. the seed-bearing structure of a plant; archaic. poetic/literary. natural produce that can be used for food; Archaic. offspring 2. informal offensive. a male homosexual 3. verb. (of a tree or other plant) produce fruit, typically at a specified time

tomato - noun. a glossy red, or occasionally yellow, pulpy edible fruit that is typically eaten as a vegetable or in a salad, the bright red color of a red tomato 2. The South American plant of the nightshade family that produces this fruit. It is widely grown as a cash crop, and many varieties have been developed.

pumpkin - noun. a large rounded orange-yellow fruit with a thick rind, edible flesh, and many seeds, the flesh of this fruit, esp. used as food, informal. used as an affectionate term of address esp. to a child 2. the plant of the gourd family that produces this fruit having tendrils and large lobed leaves and native to warm regions of America. Genus Cucurbita, Family Cucurbitaceae: several species, in particular C. pepo; British. another term for squash.

berry - noun. a small roundish juicy fruit without a stone; Botany. any fruit that has its seeds enclosed in a fleshy pulp, for example, a banana or tomato; any various kernels or seeds, such as the coffee bean; a fish egg or the roe of a lobster or similar creature.

Chuck Berry - (b. 1931-), U.S. rock-and-roll singer, guitarist, and songwriter; born Charles Edward Berry. One of the first great rock-and-roll stars, his recording career was interrupted by a period of imprisonment 1962-64. Notable songs: "Maybelline" (1955), "Johnny B Goode" (1958), and "My Ding A Ling" (1972).

eggplant -

curse -

sin -

elate -

tree -

area -

pimpernel -

blight -

aphid -

plague -

plaque -

polyp -

geranium -

appraise -

trowel -

seaweed -

otter -

blue whale -

sperm whale -

whale -

porpoise -

dolphin -

sweet -

sour -

bitter -

dracaena -

ekistics -

macroeconomics -

sandwort -

carrel -

ballistics -

bullet -

rifle -

gun -

shotgun - noun. a smoothbore gun for firing small shot at short range. 2. (also shotgun formation) Football. an offensive formation in which the quarterback receives the snap while standing several yards behind the line of scrimmage. 3. adjective. aimed at a wide range of things; with no specific target 2. adjective. (of a house or other structure) with the rooms lined up one behind the other, forming a long narrow whole. 4. verb. shoot at or kill with a shotgun 5. verb. consume (a canned beverage) in one go by punching a hole near the can's base and upturning it over one's mouth

smoothbore - noun. [often as adj.] a gun with an unrifled barrel.

uzi - noun. a type of submachine gun of Israeli design.

submachine gun - noun. a hand-held, lightweight machine gun.

magazine -

cubism -

fascist -

socialism -

nazism -

democracy -

capitalism -

futurism -

renaissance -

rococo -

abstract -

art -

Pablo Picasso -

Francesco Clemente -

Francis Bacon -

Anders Trentemoeller -

Copenhagen, Denmark -

lark -

larkspur -

philate -

ichthy -

garbo -

ichno -

learn -

lucubrate -

neosso -

gram -

hotbed -

tragacanth -

stolon -

tumbleweed -

weed -

marijuana -

heroin -

hero -

heroine -

The Velvet Underground -

The Doors -

Pink Floyd -

incredible -

amazement -

perverse -

perverted -

lolita -

pen -

pencil -

utensil -

writing -

cube -

Martin -

Narrod -

Eric -

ripe -

batik -

license -

trapped -

drown -

death -

morbidity -

steal -

pion -

sion -

orion -

stars -

victim -

skinny -

size -

obese -

ugly -

fuck -

ass -

shit -

piss -

motherfucker -

cocksucker -

tits -

bitch -

cock -

cunt -

quim -

Eukaryota -

Opisthokonta -

Metazoa -

Eumetazoa -

Bilateria -

Deuterostomie -

Chordata -

Craniata -

Vertebrate -

Gnathostomata -

Teleostomi -

Euteleostomi -

Sarcopterygii -

Tetrapoda -

Amniota -

Saurosida -

Testudines -

Cryptodira -

Testudinoidea -

Chelydridae -

Chelydra -

Cheldra Rossignonii -

snapping turtle -

alligator snapping turtle -

odocoileus virginianus leucurus -

neptune -

sun -

galaxy -

alien -

odocoileus -






dock -

iris -

solanaceous -

algology -

astrology -

criminology -

egyptology -

geopolitics -

numerology -

numismatics -

oology - noun. Zoology. Oology is a branch of ornithology that studies birds' eggs, nests, and breeding behavior. Oology can also refer to the hobby of collecting wild birds' eggs, sometimes called egg collecting, bird-nesting, or egging, which is now illegal in several jurisdictions. ORIGIN: Greek "oion", meaning egg



topology -

monogenesis -

lucubration -

semantics -

herbarium -

phrenology -

allometry -

typology -

agrimony -

geology -

graphology -

oncology -

parapsychology -

psephology -

dermatoglyphics -

ecclesiology -

anthropology -

mycology -

ornithology -

phonology -

sinology -

tribology -

leguminous -

papaveraceous -

scopolamine

biogeography -

organogenesis -

speleology -

exobiology -

phytogeography -

anthropogeography -

zootomy -

cetology -

chronobiology -

bioelectricity -

agronomy -

biochemistry -

mycologist -

phyllotaxy -

entomology -

phytology -

paleobotany -

morphology -

dendrology -

palaeobiology -

organology -

synecology -

pteridology -

zoogeography -

teratology -

dendrochronology -

agrobiology -

embryology -

phenology -

bryology -

ethology -

sociobiology -

physiology -

thremmatology -

pharmacognosy -

autecology -

paleozoology -

bioclimatology -

ethnobotany -

limnology -

palynology -

eremology -

cytology -

ombrology -

chorology -

phytopathology -

bioastronautics -

cytotaxonomy -

entozoology -

gnotobiotics -

hydrobiology -

microphytology -

thalassography -

zoologize -

zoophysiology -

zoophytology -

phytogeny -

cybernetics -

anthracnose -

phytochemistry -

paleontology -

cryptozoology -

taphonomy -

phytonomy -

hydrophytology -

paleobiology -

paleoecology -

phytogamy -





coquette  - noun. a woman who flirts 2. Noun. Zoology. a crested Central and South American coquettish - adjective. hummingbird,typically with green plumage, a reddish crest, and elongated cheek coquettishly - adverb.feathers ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: French, feminine of coquet 'wanton,' coquettishness - noun. diminutive of coq 'cock.'

coqui - noun. Zoology. a singing tree frog (Eleutheradactylus coqui), native to Puerto Rico, that has become an invasive pest in Hawaii ORIGIN: imitative of the male's call.

coquito - noun.

couchette - noun. a European railroad car with seats convertible into sleeping berths ORIGIN: 1920s French, literally 'little bed,' diminutive of couche 'a couch.'

coquina - noun. a soft limestone of broken shells, used in road-making in the Caribbean and Florida 2 (also coquina clam) a small bivalve mollusk with a wedge-shaped shell that has a wide of variety of colors and patterns. Genus Donax, family Donacidae: several species, including the edible American coquina (D. variabilis). ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: from Spanish, literally 'cockle,' based on Latin concha (see CONCH).

demimondaine -

trull -

basorexia - noun. an overwhelming desire to neck or kiss

beaze - verb. to dry in the sun

blellum - noun. an idle boring chatterer

bletcherous - adjective. pertaining to something poorly designed or disgusting in design

caitiff - noun. a despicable or cowardly person

callet - noun. a drab or untidy woman

carker - noun. a mischievous child or brat

cenacle - noun. the large room in which the Last Supper took place.

chiliad - noun. a period of one thousand years

clapperdudgeon - noun. a beggar whose parents were beggars

cloffin - verb. to sit idly by a fire

cockalorum - noun. a person who thinks they are bigger than they are

comestion - noun. a devouring by fire

concilliabule - noun. a secret meeting of people who are hatching a plot

croodle - verb. to coo like a dove

crose - verb. to whine empathetically with someone who is in pain

cruciverbalist - noun. someone who loves doing crossword puzzles

culch - noun. rubbage and refuse of every form

cullion - noun. a rude, mean-spirited person

curglaff - noun. the shock felt when entering cold water

decollate - verb. to remove someone's head or decapitate someone

decubitis - one's position or posture while sleeping

deltiologist - noun. a collector of picture postcards

diurnation - verb. to sleep during the day

dratchell - noun. a slovenly lazy woman

dwaible - adjective. being unstable

dwale - verb. to wander about deliriously

dysesthesia - an impairment of the senses, especially the sense of touch

ectomorphic - adjective. being slender and thin

efter - noun. a thief who robs theater patrons during a show

eisegesis - noun. a faulty interpretation of a text caused by reading in one's own ideas

emacity - noun. an urge to buy or spend money

eroteme - noun. the symbol used in writing known as a question mark

estiferous - adjective. pertaining to something which produces heat

estivation - verb. to go away somewhere for the summer

eximious - adjective. choice, select or excellent
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Lambs

keb - noun. Zoology. ewe that gives birth to a stillborn lamb

backliner - noun. an externally applied medicine, applied along the backline of a freshly shorn sheep to control lice or other parasites. In the British-Isles called pour-on.

bale - noun. a wool pack containing a specified weight of pressed wool as regulated by industry authorities

bell sheep - noun. Zoology. a sheep (usually a rough, wrinkly one) caught by a shearer, just before the end of a shearing run.

black wool - adjective. any wool that is not white, but not necessarily black

ket - noun. matted wool; carrion

dag - noun. dirty tatted tuft of sheep's wool

gid - noun. Zoology & Medicine. brain disease suffered by sheep

kip - noun. skin of a young mammal

mim - adjective. prim, demure

mew - verb. to shed, molt, or change

orf - noun. viral infection of sheep

teg - noun. a sheep in it's second year; the fleece of such a sheep

tod - noun. old unit of weight for wool equal to 28 pounds

tup - noun. a ram; pile-driver; the act of a male having intercourse with a female (chiefly of Sheep)

ovine - adjective. of or related to sheep

ovicide - sheep-killing/ killing insect eggs

argail - noun. Zoology. large-horned Asian wild sheep

jumbuck - noun. an Australian tern for sheep, featured in Banjo Paterson's poem "Waltzing Matilda." It generally denotes a difficulty to shear sheep, either large or untamed

malinois - noun. Zoology. a Belgian sheep-herding dog

mortling - noun. British. wool obtained from dead sheep

oestrus ovis - noun. Sheep Bot Fly. A widespread species of fly of the genus Oestrus. It is a known for its parasitic predation and damage to sheep, deer, and goats, and sometimes cattle.

oviform - adjective. sheep-like

ovivorous - noun. (of predation) a diet of sheep

pinfold - noun. a pound for stray animals

roscommon - a county in the north central part of the Republic of Ireland, in the province of Connacht; pop. 52k

scapegrace - noun. archaic. a mischievous or wayward person, esp. a young person or child; rascal

haggis - noun. a Scottish dish consisting of a sheep's or calf's offal mixed with suet, oatmeal, and seasoning and boiled in a bag, traditionally made from the animal's stomach

suet - noun. the hard white fat on the kidneys and loins of cattle, sheep, and other animals, used to make foods including puddings, pastry, and mincemeat

offal - noun. the entrails and internal organs of an animal used as food

tallow - noun. a hard fatty substance made from rendered animal fat, used in making candles and soap; verb. smear (something, esp. the bottom of a boat) with such a substance

catgut - noun. a material used for the strings of musical instruments and for surgical sutures, made of the dried and twisted intestines of sheep or horses, but not cats ORIGIN: late 16th cent.: the association with CAT remains unexplained

blat - verb. make a bleating sound

dip - verb. to immerse a sheep or hog in a solution to destroy germs and parasites or the like

lanolin - noun. a fatty substance, extracted from wool, used in ointments, cosmetics, waterproof coatings, etc.

cote - noun. a shelter, coop, or small shed for sheep, pigs, pigeons, etc.

bovid - adjective. of or pertaining to the Bovidae, comprising the hollow-horned ruminants, as oxen, antelopes, sheep, and goats

kea - noun. a large, greenish New Zealand parrot

pollard - noun. a tree cut back nearly to the trunk, so as to produce a dense mass of branches; an animal, as a sheep, stag, ox, having no horns

ruminantia - a division of Artiodactyia having four stomachs. This includes sheep, camels, deer, antelopes, goats, neat cattles, and allies

yaff - a bark or yelp

cud - noun. the portion of food that a ruminant returns from the first stomach to the mouth to chew a second time ORIGIN: before 1000; Middle English; Old English cudu, variant of cwiodu, cwidu; akin to Old High German quiti glue, Sanskrit jatu, resin, gum

anthrax - noun. an infectious, often fatal disease of cattle, sheep, and other mammals, transmitted to humans by contaminated wool, raw meat, or other animal products

aoudad - noun. a wild sheep, of Northern Africa, having a long fringe of hair on the throat, chest, and forelegs

mouflon - noun. a wild sheep, inhabiting the mountainous regions of Sardinia and Corsica, the male of which has large curving horns

gid - noun. a disease of cattle and especially sheep in which the brain or spinal cord is infested with larvae of the dog tapeworm producing staggers also sturdy

suint - noun. the natural grease of the wool of sheep, consisting of a mixture of fatty matter and potassium salts, used as a source of potash and in the preparation of ointments

arui - noun. a wild sheep of Northern Africa

cheviot - noun. a British breed of sheep, noted for its heavy fleece of medium length

scrapie - noun. Veterinary Pathology. an infectious, usually fatal brain disease of sheep, characterized by twitching of the neck and head, grinding of the teeth, and scraping of itching portions of skin against fixed objects with a subsequent loss of wool, caused by an unidentified sticky agent that clings to cell membranes

sheepfold - noun. an enclosure for sheep

wether - noun. a castrated male sheep

yean - verb. of a sheep or goat, to bring forth young ORIGIN: 1375-1425; late Middle English yenen, probably continuing to Old English 'geeanian', to bring forth young, Latin 'agnus', Greek amnos 'lamb'

bellwether - noun. a wether or other male sheep that leads the flock, usually wearing a bell; a leader

cimarron - noun. bighorn

drover - noun. a herd or flock of animals being driven in a body; that person who does such droving

exmoor - noun. a moorland in SW England, in Somersetshire and Devonshire: the scene of Blackmore's novel, Lorna Doone

hogget - noun. a hog ORIGIN:1300-1350; Middle English

rambouillet - noun. one of a breed of hardy sheep, developed from the Merino, yielding good mutton and a fine grade of wool

mutton - noun. the flesh of sheep, especially full-grown or more mature sheep, used as food

urial - noun. a wild sheep with long legs and relatively small horns, native to central Asia Asia.

argol - noun. a crude tartar, produced as a by-product in casks by the fermentation of wine grapes, used as a mordant in dyeing, in the manufacture of tartaric acid, and in fertilizers

cabretta - noun. a leather made from the skins of sheep that grow hair rather than wool, tougher than other sheepskins and used chiefly for gloves and shoes

caracul - noun. one of an Asian breed of sheep having curly fleece that is black in the young and brown or gray in the adults: raised especially for lambskins used in the fur industry

cotswold - noun. one of an English breed of large sheep having coarse, long wool

owling - noun. The offense of transporting wool or sheep out of England contrary to the statute formerly existing

sheepcote - noun. a pen or covered enclosure for sheep

toison - noun. a sheep's fleece

alsatian - noun. another term for a German Shepherd; a native or inhabitant of Alsace

ammotragus lervia -

barbary sheep - noun. a short-coated sheep with a long neck ruff, found in the high deserts of northern Africa. Also called aoudad

bharal - noun. also, The Himalayan Blue Sheep, is a caprid found in the high Himalays of Nepal, Tibet, China, India, Pakistan, and Bhutan

caprid - noun. a goat-antelope or caprid is any of the species which make up the medium sized bovids of the subfamily Caprinae

woolbird - noun. a sheep

bot - noun. the larva of the botfly, which is an internal parasite of animals. It lives typically in the stomach, finally passing out in the dung and pupating on the ground.

chamois - noun. an agile goat-antelope with short hooked horns, found in mountainous areas of Europe from Spain to the Caucasus; also, soft pliable leather made from the skin of sheep, goats, or deer

dall's sheep - noun. a white-haired wild sheep, of mountainous regions of northwestern North America

hampshire - noun. also called Hampshire Down, one of an English breed of sheep having a dark face, ears, and legs, noted for the rapid growth of its lambs

hoggerel - noun. a sheep clipped the first year, a sheep of the second year

komondor - noun. one of a Hungarian breed of large dogs having a long, matted, white coat, used for herding sheep

lambkill - noun. a sheep laurel; so-called due to its fatal consumption and poisonous nature to sheep

orf - noun. Veterinarian Science. Technical Name: contagious pustular dermatitis, Also called: scabby mouth; an infectious disease of sheep and sometimes goats and cattle, characterized by scabby pustular lesions on the muzzle and lips; caused by a paramyxovirus 2. also Norfolk International Airport

paramyxovirus - noun. Medicine. any of a group of RNA viruses similar to the myxoviruses but larger and hemolytic, including those causing mumps, measles, distemper, rinderpest, and various respiratory infections (parainfluenza).

distemper - noun. a viral disease of some animals, esp. dogs, causing fever, coughing, and catarrh ORIGIN: mid 16th cent.: (originally in the sense [bad temper,] later [illness] ): from Middle English distemper [upset, derange,] from late Latin distemperare 'soak, mix in the wrong proportions,' from dis- 'thoroughly' + temperare 'mingle.' Compare with TEMPER . Sense 1 dates from the mid 18th cent.

distemper - noun. archaic. political disorder, a condition regarding the aptitude of a society, population, or people 3. noun a kind of paint using glue or size instead of an oil base, for use on walls or for scene-painting, a method of mural and poster painting using this 4. verb[trans.] [often as adj.] paint (something) with distemper ORIGIN: late Middle English (originally as a verb in the senses [dilute] and [steep] ): from Old French destremper or late Latin distemperare 'soak.'

rinderpest - noun. Veterinary Medicine. an infectious disease of ruminants, especially cattle, caused by a paramyxovirus. It is characterized by fever, dysentery, and inflammation of the mucous membranes. ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: from German, from Rinder 'cattle' + Pest 'plague.'

ruminant - noun. an even-toed ungulate mammal that chews the cud regurgitated from its rumen. The ruminants comprise the cattle, sheep, antelopes, deer, giraffes, and their relatives. Suborder Ruminantia order Artiodactyla: six families 2. a contemplative person; a person given to meditation

even-toed ungulate - noun. a hoofed mammal of an order that includes the ruminants, camels, pigs, and hippopotamuses. Mammals of this group have either two or four toes on each foot

tylopod - noun. Zoology. an even-toed ungulate mammal of a group that comprises the camels, llamas, and their extinct relatives. They are distinguished by bearing their weight on the sole-pads of the feet rather than on the hoofs, and they do not chew the cud

rumen - noun. Zoology. the first stomach of a ruminant, which receives food or cud from the esophagus, partly digests it with the aid of bacteria, and passes it to the reticulum.

reticulum - noun. a fine network or netlike structure 2. Zoology the second stomach of a ruminant, having a honeycomb-like structure, receiving food from the rumen and passing it to the omasum.

omasum - noun. Zoology. the muscular third stomach of a ruminant animal, between the reticulum and the abomasum. Also called psalterium. ORIGIN: early 18th cent.: from Latin, literally 'bullock's tripe.'

psalterium - noun. another term for omasum. ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: from Latin, literally 'psalter', because of its many folds of tissue, resembling pages of a book

psalter - noun. the Book of Psalms; a copy of the biblical Psalms, esp. for liturgical use ORIGIN: Old English ℗saltere, via Latin psalterium from Greek psalterium 'stringed instrument.'

abomasum - noun. Zoology. the fourth stomach of a ruminant, which receives food from the omasum and passes it to the small intestine.

bullocks - noun. another term for steer.

catarrh - noun. excessive discharge or buildup of mucus in the nose or throat, associated with inflammation of the mucous membrane. ORIGIN: early 16th.: from French catarrhe, from late Latin catarrhus, from Greek katarrhous, from katarrhein 'flow down,' from kata- 'down' + rhein 'flow.'

hemolytic - adjective. Medicine. relating to or involving the rupture or destruction of red blood cells

parainfluenza - noun. Medicine. a disease caused by any of a group of viruses that resemble the influenza virus

race - noun. a competition between runners, horses, vehicles, boats, etc., to see which is the fastest in covering a set course, (the races) a series of such competitions for horses or dogs, held at a fixed time on a set course. [in singular] a situation in which individuals or groups compete to be first to achieve a particular objective 2. archaic. the course of the sun or moon through the heavens 3. a strong or rapid current flowing through a narrow channel in the sea or a river 4. a groove, channel, or passage, in particular: a water channel, especially one built to lead water to or from a point where its energy is utilized, as in a mill or mine as in millrace: noun. the channel carrying the swift current of water that drives a mill wheel. A smooth, ring-shaped groove or guide in which a ball bearing or roller bearing runs.

race - verb. [intrans.] compete with another or others to see who is fastest at covering a set course or achieving an objective, to compete regularly in races as a sport or leisure activity; [trans.] prepare and enter (an animal or vehicle) in races as a sport or leisure activity 2. [intrans.] move or progress swiftly at full speed, figurative. a hurrying of thoughts or ideas that move through the mind swiftly, (of an engine or other machinery) operate at excessive speed, (of a person's heart or pulse) beat faster than usual because of fear or excitement. [trans.] cause to move, progress, or operate swiftly or at excessive speed ORIGIN: late Old English, from Old Norse ras 'current.'  It was originally a northern English word with the sense [rapid forward movement,] which gave rise to the senses [contest of speed] (early 16th cent.) and [channel, path] (i.e. the space traversed). The verb dates from the late 15th century.

ruddle - noun. a red variety of ocher, used for marking sheep, coloring, etc.; to mark or color with ruddle

yeanling - noun. the young of a sheep or goat; a lamb or kid 2. adjective. just born; infant

ammotragus - noun. The Barbary sheep is a species of caprid(goat-antelope) native to rocky mountains in North Africa.

bowyangs - noun. a pair of strings or straps secured round each trouser leg below the knee, worn esp. by sheep shearers and other laborers

cavicom - adjective. Zoology. hollow-horned, as the ruminants with true horns, as distinguished from bony antlers

cockalorum - noun. informal/dated. a self-important little man.

commonable - adjective. British. Chiefly Historical. (of land) allowed to be jointly used or owned; (of an animal) allowed to be pastured on public land

cut of mutton - noun. cut of meat from a mature sheep

depasture - verb. to graze or denude by grazing (a pasture, especially a meadow specially grown for the purpose) 2. transitive verb. to pasture (cattle or sheep).

denude - verb. to make naked or bare; strip 2. Geology. subject to denudation: the act of denuding, the state of being denuded; exposing or laying bare of rock by erosive processes

gourdworm - noun. the fluke of sheep

fluke - noun. the part of an anchor that catches in the ground, especially the flat triangular piece at the end of each arm 2. a barb, or the barbed head, of a harpoon, spear, arrow, or the like 3. either half of the triangular tail of a whale

groenendael - or Belgian Sheepdog, is recognized by all major kennel clubs, a mid-sized, hard-working, square-proportioned breed of dog in the sheepdog family. Posesses a distinctive black coat.

hogg - noun. Farming. a young sheep of either sex from about 9 to 18 months of a age (until it cuts two teeth)

hypopachus - noun. Zoology. a genus of microhylid frogs.

microhylidae - the microhylidae are a geographically widespread family of frogs. The 495 species are in 68 genera and 9 subfamilies, which is the largest number of genera of any frog family.

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Words of Black and Beauty

ebon - noun. poetic/literary. dark brown or black; ebony

drab - adjective. lacking brightness in color

wan - adjective. (of a person's complexion or appearance) pale and giving the impression of illness or exhaustion

achromic - adjective. having no color; colorless

achromatous - adjective. having little or inadequate color

dun - adjective. of a dull grayish-brown color

etiolate - verb. to bleach and alter the natural development of (a green plant) by excluding sunlight; to make pale

hueless - adjective. of something totally lacking in saturation and therefore having no hue

wanness - adjective. lividness: unnatural lack of color in the skin (as from bruising or sickness or emotional distress

tawny - adjective. of an orange-brown or yellowish-brown color; tan

pallor - noun. an unhealthy pale appearance

paly - adjective. divided into equal vertical stripes; pallid, colorless

atonic - adjective. lacking muscle tone

melanize - verb. convert into, or infiltrate with melanin

melanin - noun. a dark brown to black pigment occurring in the hair, skin, and iris of the eye in people and animals. It is responsible for tanning of skin exposed to sunlight.

achromatic - adjective. relating to, employing, or denoting lenses that transmit light without separating it into constituent colors. poetic/literary. without color.

nigrify - verb. blacken; make or become black

calamitous - adjective. (of an event) black; having extremely unfortunate or dire consequences; bringing ruin

mordant - adjective. (esp., of humor) having or showing a sharp or critical quality; biting; noun. a substance, typically inorganic oxide, that combines with a dye or stain and thereby fixes it in a material

niello - noun. a black compound of sulfur with silver, lead, or copper, used for filling in engraved designs in silver or other metals; such ornamental work

mulatto - noun. Derogatory. a person of mixed white and black ancestry, esp. a person with on white and one black parent

pekoe - noun. a high-quality black tea made from young leaves

spade - noun. a tool with a sharp-edged, typically rectangular, metal blade and a long handle, used for digging or cutting earth, sand, turf, etc.; one of the four suits in a conventional deck of playing cards, denoted by a black inverted heart-shaped figure with a small stalk

bohea - noun. a kind of black tea

congou - noun. a black tea grown in China

crape - verb. to cover or drape with a crape

demitasse - noun. a small coffee cup

jackdaw - noun. a small, gray-headed Eurasian crow, that typically nests in tall buildings and chimneys

schipperke - noun. a small black tailless dog of a breed with a ruff of fur around its neck

souchong - noun. a fine black variety of Chinese tea

atrous - adjective. Jet black in color

ecchymosis - noun. Medical. a discoloration of the skin resulting from bleeding underneath

percheron - noun. a powerful draft horse of a gray or black breed, originally from France

schorl - noun. a black iron-rich variety of tourmaline

tourmaline - noun. a brittle gray or black mineral that occurs as prismatic crystals in granitic and other rocks. It consists of a boron aluminosilicate and has pyroelectric and polarizing properties, and is used in electrical and optical instruments and as a gemstone. ORIGIN: mid 18th cent.: from French, based on Sinhalese turamalli, 'carnelian.'

carnelian - noun. a semiprecious stone consisting of an orange or orange-red variety of chalcedony
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Word List of 7/29/13-8/29/13

hellion - noun. informal. a rowdy, mischievous, or troublemaking person, esp. a child. ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: perhaps from dialect hallion [a worthless fellow,] changed by association with hell.

sorghum - noun. a widely cultivated cereal native to warm regions of the Old World. It is a major source of grain and of feed for livestock

tome - noun. chiefly humorous. a book, especially a large, heavy, scholarly one ORIGIN: early 16th cent.: (denoting one volume of a larger work) from French, via Latin from Greek tomos 'section, roll of papyrus, volume' ; related to temnein 'to cut.'

psychonautics - noun. a sailor of the mind/soul, refers both to a methodology for describing and explaining the subjective effects of altered states of consciousness, including those induced by meditation or mind altering substances, and to a research paradigm in which the researcher voluntarily immerses him/herself into an altered state by means of such techniques, as a means to explore human experience and existence. The term has been applied diversely, to cover all activities by which altered states are induced and utilized for spiritual purposes or the exploration of the human condition, including shamanism, lamas of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, sensory deprivation, and archaic/modern drug users who use entheogenic substances in order to gain deeper insights and spiritual experiences. A person who uses altered states for such exploration is known as a psychonaut.

lamas - noun. an honorific title applied to a spiritual leader in the Tibetan Buddhism whether a reincarnate lama (such as the Dalai Lama) or one who has earned the title in life. 2. a Tibetan or Mongolian Buddhist monk. ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: from Tibetan bla-ma (the initial b being silent), literally 'superior one."

Tabernanthe iboga -  noun. Botany. also iboga. A perennial rainforest shrub and hallucinogen, native to western Central Africa. Iboga stimulates the central nervous system when taken in small doses and induces visions in larger doses. In parts of Africa where the plant grows the bark of the root is chewed for various pharmacological or ritualistic purposes. Ibogaine, , the active alkaloid is also used to treat substance abuse disorders. A small amount of ibogaine along with precursors of ibogaine are found in Vacanga africana.

chartulary - noun. A cartulary or chartulary, also called Pancarta and Codex Diplomaticus, is a medieval manuscript volume or roll containing transcriptions of original documents relating to the foundation, privileges, and legal rights of ecclesiastical establishments, municipal corporations, industrial associations, institutions of learning, or private families. THe term is sometimes also applied to collections of original documents bound in one volume or attached to one another so to form a roll.

hemminge - noun. An English actor who edited the first folio of Shakespeare's plays

Edmund Kean - noun. Historical Theater. (b.1787-1833) English actor, especially known for performance of Shakespearean roles.

oberon - Astronomy. a satellite of Uranus, the furthest from the planet, discovered by W. Herschel in 1787. It has a heavily cratered surface and a diameter of 963 miles. ORIGIN: from the name of the king of the fairies in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream.

Sir John Lord Cobham Oldcastle - noun. b.1377-1417, English martyr; leader of a Lollard conspiracy; executed for treason and heresy: model for Shakespeare's Falstaff
in Henry IV

Prospero - is a fictional character and the protagonist of William Shakespeare's play The Tempest.

The Tempest - Prospero is the rightful Duke of Milan, who (with his young daughter, Miranda) was put to sea on "a rotten carcass of a butt(boat)" to die by his uprising brother, Antonio, twelve years before the play begins. Prospero and Miranda survived, and found exile on a small island. He has learned sorcery from books secretly given to him (referred to as his "Art" in the play), and uses it while on the island to protect Miranda and control the other characters. On the island, he becomes master of the monster Caliban(the son of Sycorax, a malevolent witch), and Ariel, an elemental who has become enslaved by Prospero after he is freed from his prison inside a tree. However, at the end of the play, Prospero intends to drown his book and renounce magic. In the view of the audience, this may have been required to make the ending ambiguously happy, as magic smacked too much of diabolical works; he will drown his books for the same reason that Doctor Faust, in an earlier play by Christopher Marlowe, promised in vain to burn his books.

Caliban -

sycorax -

teston -

therewithal -

tirrit -

Martin Luther - Martin Luther, b. 1483-1546, German theologian; the principal figure of the German Reformation. Luther preached the doctrine of justification by faith rather than by works and railed against the sale of indulgences and papal authority.

papal - adjective. of or relating to a pope or to the papacy.

Lollardy - also (Lollardry, Lollardism) was a political and religious movement that existed from the mid-14th century to the English Reformation. The term "lollard" refers to the followers of John Wycliffe, a prominent theologian who was dismissed from the University of Oxford in 1381 for criticism of the Church, especially in his doctrine on the Eucharist.The Lollards' demands were primarily for the reform of Western Christianity

The Alexian Brothers - also Alexians or Cellites are a Catholic religious institute or congregation specifically devoted to caring for the sick which has its origin in Europe at the time of the Black Death. They follow the Augustinian rule.

History

The Alexians trace their origin to the early 12th-century Beghards, male counter-arts of the Beguines, the lay women who followed a devout style of life in a limited degree of common life. The men did not get much attention until they made a great contribution in history in the city of Mechelen, in the Duchy of Brabant (in central Flanders, now Belgium), some time in the 14th century, during the terrible ravages of the Black Death. Some laymen united under the guidance of a certain Tobias to succor the plague-stricken, without taking any vows or adopting a monastic lifestyle. One of their most obvious activities was caring for those stricken with the bubonic plague, along with their families, and burying those who died. These laymen lived in little rooms or cells (from Latin, cella 'a cell that gave rise to their early name of Cellites.'

The plague victims became the outcasts of the society and were thrown outside the city walls, along with the other marginalized folk, to die. Moved by compassion, these laymen came together and vowed to take care of these victims who were abandoned by not only the state and the church, but also their families. Later on, the group attracted more men who chose to abandon their secular lives to live in community as brothers and to serve the needs of the poor. Eventually, the Catholic Church saw the utility of the brothers and invited them to be formally recognized as a religious group and subsequently gave them pontifical status. The brothers were associated with a chapel dedicated to Saint Alexius, who had served many years in a hospital at Edessa in Syria, and they began to be called The Brothers at Saint Alexius Chapel, a name that evolved into that of Alexian Brothers, their modern name.

pontifical - adjective. (in the Roman Catholic Church) of or relating to the pope 2. characterized by a pompous and superior air of infallibility

succor - noun. assistance and support in times of hardship and distress 2. verb. give assistance or aid to 3. archaic. reinforcements of troops ORIGIN: Middle English via Old French from medieval Latin succursus, from Latin succurrere 'run to the help of,' from  sub- 'from below' + currere 'run.'

Black Death - the great epidemic of bubonic plague that killed a large part of the population of Europe in the mid 14th century. It originated in central Asia and China and spread rapidly through Europe, carried by the fleas of black rats, reaching England in 1348 and killing between one third and one half of the population in a matter of months

etiology - noun. Medicine. the cause, set of causes, or manner of causation of a disease or condition; the causation of diseases and disorders as a subject of investigation 2. the investigation or attribution of the cause or reason for something, often expressed in terms of historical or mythical explanation

Mechelen - noun. a Dutch-speaking municipality in the province of Flanders, Belgium. The municipality comprises the city of Mechelen proper, some quarters at its outskirts, the hamlets of Nekkerspoel(adjacent) and Battel(a few kilometers away) as well as the villages of Walem, Heffen, Leest, Hombeek, and Muizen. The Dijle flows through the city, hence it is often referred to as the 'Dijlestad "City on the river Dijle").

Nekkerspoel - noun. a hamlet of Mechelen, Flanders, Belgium, immediately east of the city. The name means: pool of one or more Nekkers or water demons (in older Dutch necker, devil, evil spirit; from Latin niger, negr-, black), and it is assumed that in earlier centuries locals taking a shortcut trotting through the marshlands of which the Mechels Broek still remains, may have strayed off safer pathways and lost their lives. In 1904, remnants dating from the La Tene era of a settlement of several wooden houses and an 8.4 meter long canoe cut out of an oak tree-trunk, were found at a depth of 5 meters.

This hamlet was already well-populated and built-up at a time that otherwise mainly a few monasteries were seen outside the city's former walls. Meanwhile, it obtained Mechelen's secondary station on Belgium's major Brussels-Mechelen-Antwerp Railway, and the Toy Museum(in Dutch Speelgoedmuseum) with exhibits covering 7,000 m(2) in the former furniture manufacturer's Nova building.

Duchy of Brabant - noun. The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183. It developed from the Landgraviate of Brabant and formed the heart of the historic Low Countries, part of the Burgundian Netherlands from Habsburg, Netherlands from 1492, until it was dismembered after the Dutch revolt.

Present day North Braband (Staats-Brabant) was adjudicated to the Generality Lands of the Dutch Republic according to the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, while the reduced duchy remained in existence with the Southern Netherlands until it was conquered by French Revolutionary forces in 1794.

duchy -

panoche - noun. flamboyant confidence of style or manner 2. historical a tuft of plume of feathers, esp. as a headdress or on a helmet.p

landgrave - noun. Historical. a count having jurisdiction over a territory; the title of certain German princes

fief - noun. historical. an estate of land, esp. one held on condition of feudal service 2. a person's sphere of operation or control

feudalism - noun. Historical. the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.

villein - noun. (in medieval England) a feudal tenant entirely subject to a lord or manor to whom he paid dues and services in return for land

Pancho Villa - (b.1878-1923), Mexican revolutionary; born Doroteo Arango. He helped Venustiano Carranza to overthrow the dictatorial regime of General Victoriano Huerta in 1914, but then helped Emiliano Zapata to rebel against Carranza's regime.

diorite - noun. a speckled, coarse-grained igneous rock consisting essentially of plagioclase, feldspar, and hornblende or other mafic minerals.

mafic - adjective. Geology. relating to, denoting, or containing a group of dark covered, mainly ferromagnesian minerals such as pyroxene and olivine. Often contrasted with felsic

ferric - adjective. of or relating to iron; chemistry. of iron with a valence of three; of iron(III)

ferrous - adjective. Chemistry. of iron with a valence of two; of iron(II); (chiefly of metals) containing or consisting of iron.

felsic - adjective. Geology. of, relating to, or denoting a group of light-colored minerals including feldspar, feldspathoids, quartz, and muscovite.

feldspar - noun. an abundant rock-forming mineral typically as colorless or pale-colored crystals and consisting of aluminosilicates of potassium, sodium, and calcium.

aluminosilicates - noun. Chemistry. a silicate in which aluminium replaces some of the silicon, esp. a rock forming mineral such as feldspar or a clay mineral.

feldspathoids - noun. Geology. any of a group of minerals chemically similar to feldspar but containing less silica, such as nepheline and leucite.

nepheline - noun. a colorless, greenish, or brownish mineral consisting of an aluminosilicate of sodium (often with potassium) and occurring as crystals and grains in igneous rocks

leucite - noun. a gray or white potassium aluminosilicate, typically found in alkali volcanic rocks.

muscovite - noun. a silver-gray form of mica occurring in many igneous and metamorphic rocks; noun. a native or citizen of Moscow; archaic a Russian

plagioclase - noun. a form of feldspar consisting of aluminosilicates of sodium and/or calcium, common in igneous rocks and typically white

hornblende - noun. a dark brown, black, or green mineral of the amphibole group consisting of hydroxyl aluminosilicate calcium, magnesium, and iron, occurring in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.

amphibole - noun. any of a class of rock-forming silicate or aluminosilicate minerals typically occurring as fibrous or columnar crystals.

panchakarma - noun. (in Ayurvedic medicine) a fivefold detoxification treatment and therapeutic way of eliminating toxic elements from the body. There are a set of five (panch = five, in sanskrit) procedures. They are Vamana, Virechana, Basti, Nasya, and Raktomokshana.

Vamana - Vamana Karma also known as medical emesis/medical vomiting is one of the five Pradhana Karma's of Panchakarma which is successfully used in treating Kaphaj disorders. Some clinical trials have used it as a treatment for major depressive disorder. Some studies have shown the effectiveness of this procedure for disorders of various systems of the human body. It is used as a treatment for psoriasis. There are studies for its use in young, pre-diabetics. The majority of the studies reviewed showed positive outcomes for panchakarma and allied therapies when compared to a control.

Virechana - noun. also known as medical purgation. It is one of the Panchakarmas. Its clinical trials have been carried out for bronchial asthma, psoriasis, and diabetes.

Basti - noun. a treatment done with medical substances, like herbal oils and decoctions in a liquid medium, into the rectum of the person.

Nasya - noun. The administration of drugs by the route of the nasal cavity. Randomized controlled clinical trials have shown reduction in the signs and symptoms of cervical spondylosis by nasya. Clinical trials have been carried out for myopia, as well as to treat chronic sinusitis.

cervical spondylosis - noun. Medical. Osteoarthritis between the spinal vertebrae and/or neural foraminae.

decoction - noun. the liquor resulting from concentrating the essence of a substance by heating or boiling, esp. a medical preparation made from a plant; the action or process of extracting the essence of something ORIGIN: late Middle English from late Latin decoctio(n-), from decoquere 'boil down.'

purgation - noun. evacuation of the bowels brought about by laxatives 2. the purification or cleansing of someone or something 3. (in Roman Catholic doctrine) the spiritual cleansing of a soul in purgatory 4. historical the action of clearing oneself of accusation or suspicion by an oath or ordeal

sequela - noun. (usu. sequelae) Medicine. a condition that is the consequence of a previous disease or injury

Kaphalaseri - noun. a village in Bajhang District in the Seti Zone of north-western Nepal. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a population of 4,364 and had 727 houses in the village.

panchayat - noun. Indian. a village council

vassals - noun. Historical. a holder of land by feudal tenure on conditions of homage and allegiance; a person or country in a subordinate position to another

Lotharingia - noun. a region in northwest Europe, comprising the Low Countries, the western Rhineland, the lands today on the border between France and Germany, and what is now western Switzerland. It was born of the triparite division in 855 of the Middle-Francia, itself formed of the threefold division of the Carolingian Empire by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. Neither Lotharingia nor Middle Francia had any natural coherence, but each was conceived as a territorial division of a larger realm.

interregnum -

adjudicated - verb. make a formal judgement or decision about a problem or disputed matter ORIGIN: early 18th cent. (in the sense [award judicially]: from Latin adjudicat- 'awarded judicially,' from the verb adjudicare. The noun adjudication dates from the early 17th century.

Tobias -

bubonic plague -

Edessa in Syria

Beguines and Beghards - were lay Christian religious orders that were active in Germany and the Low Countries in the 13th-18th centuries. Their members lived in semi-monastic communities but did not take formal religious vows. They were influenced by Albigensian teachings and by the Brethren of the Free Spirit, which flourished in and around Cologne at the same time but was later condemned as heretical.

Albigensian - plural noun. the members of a heretical sect in southern France in the 12th-13th centuries, identified with the Cathars. Their teaching was a form of Manichaean dualism, with an extremely strict moral and social code.

Brethren of the Free Spirit -

Jainism -

Augustinian rule -

novitiate - noun. the period or state of being a novice, esp. in a religious order; a place housing religious novices, a novice, esp. in a religious order ORIGIN: early 17th cent.: from ecclesiastical Latin noviciatus, from Latin novicius 'new.'

Alexian Brothers' Novitiate - The Alexian Brother's Novitiate is a manor house located in Gresham, Shawano County, Wisconsin, USA. Originally built in 1939 as a residence, it would be converted into a novitiate for the Alexian Brother's order in 1950 after being donated to them. The building ceased to be used as a novitiate after 1968, following the Second Vatican Council and the reforms from it. It has since been largely vacated and partially demolished, leaving very little of it standing. The building is best known for being seized by the Menominee Indian Reservation. Though successful, it ultimately was returned to Gresham, where it would be largely forgotten.

nontrinitarianism -

troilus - Greek Mythology. a Trojan prince, the son of Priam and Hecuba, killed by Achilles. In medieval legends of the Trojan War he is portrayed as the forsaken lover of Cressida.

Cressida - Greek Mythology. (in medieval legends of the Trojan War) the daughter of Calchas, a priest. She was unfaithful to her lover Troilus,

vagrom -

wappened -

uredo - noun. burning feeling in the skin

urent - adjective. burning;stinging

uranophobia - noun. agoraphobia

unsterocorated - adjective. not manured

untimeous - adjective. untimely

untreasure - verb. to despoil

despoil - verb. (often be despoiled) steal or violently remove valuable or attractive possessions from; plunder

unwithdrawing - noun. liberal; lavish

upas - noun. a tropical Asian tree, the milky sap of which has been used as arrow poison and for ritual purposes; (in folklore) a Javanese(people who descended from Java; the Indonesian language of Java) tree alleged to poison its surroundings and said to be fatal to approach; a tree in the mulberry and fig family Moraceae.

upbuilding - verb. (past and past part. -built) chiefly poetic. literary. construct or develop (something)

univocalic - noun. having only one vowel; written passage using only one vowel

upcast - noun. a shaft through which air leaves a mine; upward throw, material thrown upwards

upher - noun. a rough pole made of fir and used in scaffolding

uprist - adjective. rising, upward

upspeak - verb. to begin to speak

upstay - verb. to sustain

uranic - adjective. of the palate

uraster - noun. starfish

upaithric - noun. roofless, open to the sky

uvid - adjective. moist;wet

usucaption - noun. acquisition of property by long usage and enjoyment

bardolatry -

falstaff -

desdemona -

hathaway -

alarum -

bardolater -

hazlitt -

mongst -

monist -

prithee -

rede -

rsc -

schlegel -

sessa -

varlet -

veronese -

baconian -

burbage -

caliban -

polonius -

shaconian -

acold -

adonis -

antonomasia -

banquo -

bowdler -

churlish -

cressida -

ere -

ern -

expurgated -

fustilarian -

greymalkin -



acumen - noun. the ability to make good judgements and quick decisions, typically in a particular domain.

Abuja - noun. a newly built city in central Nigeria, designated in 1982 to replace Lagos as the national capital; pop. 378,670

sard - noun. a yellow or brownish-red variety of chalcedony

pard - noun. archaic or poetic/literary. a leopard

parados - noun. an elevation of earth behind a fortified place as a protection against attack from the rear, esp. a mound along the back of a trench

paralipsis - noun. Rhetoric. the device of giving emphasis by professing to say little or nothing about a subject ORIGIN: late 16th cent.: via late Latin from Greek paraleipsis 'passing over,' from paraleopein 'omit,' from para- 'aside' + leipein 'to leave.'

lupine - adjective. of, like, or relating to a wolf or wolves; fierce or ravenous as a wolf ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: from Latin lupinus, from lupus 'wolf.'

cachalot - noun. Zoology. another term for sperm whale. ORIGIN: mid 18th cent.: from French, from Spanish and Portuguese cachalote, from cachola 'big head.'

cachaca - noun. a Brazilian white rum made from sugar cane

cachet - noun. 1. the state of being respected or admired; prestige 2. a distinguishing mark or seal. Philately. a printed design added to an envelope to commemorate a special event 3. a flat capsule enclosing a dose of unpleasant-tasting medicine.  ORIGIN: early 17th cent.: from French, from cacher in the sense 'to press,' based on Latin coactare 'constrain.'

tannin - noun. a yellowish or brownish bitter-tasting organic substance present in some galls, barks, and other plant tissues, consisting of derivatives of gallic acid, used in leather production and ink manufacture ORIGIN: early 19th cent.: from French tanin, from tan 'tanbark (ultimately related to TAN)

cachou - noun. dated. a pleasant smelling lozenge sucked to mask bad breath, variation of catechu

catechu - noun. a vegetable extract containing tannin, esp. one (also called cutch) obtained from the heartwood of an Indian acacia tree, used chiefly for tanning and dyeing

polyphenol - noun. Chemistry. a compound containing more than one phenolic hydroxyl group.

confabulate - verb. formal. engage in conversation; talk 2. Psychiatry. fabricate imaginary experiences as compensation for loss of memory

eristic - formal. adjective. of or characterized by debate or argument. (of an argument or arguer
aiming at winning rather than at reaching the truth 2. noun. a person given to debate or argument; the art or practice or debate or argument ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: from Greek eristikos, from erizein 'to wrangle,' from eris 'strife.'

cutch - noun. an extract of Acacia

Fabuland - Fabuland was a theme product range of the Lego construction toy, aimed at young children. Introduced in 1979, the range aimed to fill the gap between Duplo and the standard Lego product ranges. Aimed at both boys and girls, the range encouraged storytelling, and was the first theme to be extended into books, clothing, and claymation TV series that aired in the UK and Canada during the 1980's and each Episode of Edward and Friends was 5 minutes in length. Fabuland sets featured anthropomorphic animal characters. These pieces were larger than standard Lego Minifigures, but smaller than Duplo figures, and included movable arms, legs and head. Some of the characters appeared in more than one set, and were given names, and sometimes even stories. Recurring characters included Edward Elephant, Bonnie Bunny, Max Mouse, Clive Crocodile, and Wilfred Walrus.

philately - noun. the study of stamps and postal history and other related items. Philately involves more than just stamp collecting, which does not necessarily involve the study of stamps. It is possible to be a philatelist without owning any stamps. For instance, the stamps being studied may be very rare, or reside only in museums. ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: from French philatelie, from philo- 'loving' + Greek ateleia 'exemption from payment (from a- 'not' + telos 'toll, tax'), used to mean a franking mark or postage stamp exempting the recipient from payment.

cachinnate - verb. poetic/literary. laugh loudly

tencel - noun. trademark. a cellulosic fiber contained from wood pulp using recyclable solvents' a fabric made from this

algolagnia - noun. Psychiatry. desire for sexual gratification through inflicting pain on oneself or others; sadomasochism.

In 1892, Albert von Schrenck-Notzing introduced the term algolagnia to describe "sexual" masochism, to differentiate it from Fere's earlier term called "algophilia"; Schrenck-Notzing's interpretation was that algolagnia involved lust as Fere interpreted the phenomenon. (It should be cautioned, though, that the definitions regarding sadism and masochism as medical terms have changed over the years (as also noted in the main article for that topic) and are still evolving, and there are also non-medical definitions of sadomasochism.) However, Krafft-Ebing's theories in Pyschopathia Sexualis - where the terms sadism and masochism were used- were adopted by Sigmund Freud and became an integral part of psychoanalysis, thereby ensuring their predominance over the concept of "algolagnia."

anhedonia - noun. Psychiatry. inability to feel pleasure

cyrenaic - adjective. of or denoting the hedonistic school of philosophy, which was founded c. 400 BC by Aristippus the Elder of Cyrene and which holds that pleasure is the highest good and that virtue is to be equated with the ability to enjoy.

Aristippus - (late 5th century BC), Greek philosopher; known as Aristippus the Elder of Cyrene. He is considered the founder of the Cyrenaic school.

Cyrene - an ancient Greek city in North Africa, near the coast in Cyrenaica.

blase - adjective. unimpressed or indifferent to something because one has experienced or seen it so often before

ammophanes - a genus of moths of the Noctuidae family. The Noctuidae or owlet moths are a family of robustly built moths that includes more than 35,000 known species out of possibly 100,000 total, in more than 4,200 genera. They constitute the largest family in the Lepidoptera. Their distribution is worldwide, with about 1,450 species found in Europe.

photophile - adjective. of or pertaining to an organism, as a plant, that is receptive to, seeks, or thrives in light.

sciophilous - in phytogeography, shade-loving; adapted to live in shade.

gerundive - noun. Grammar. (in Latin) a form that is derived from a verb but that functions as an adjective, denoting something "that should or must be done."
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Priests, The Church, the Vestments
sacerdotal - adjective. relating to priests or the priesthood; priestly 2. Theology. relating to or denoting a doctrine that ascribes sacrificial functions and spiritual supernatural powers to ordained priests

sacristy - noun. a room in a church where a priest prepares for a service, and where vestments and other things used in worship are kept

vestments - noun. a chasuble or other robe worn by the clergy or choristers during services 2. Archaic. a garment, esp. a ceremonial or official robe

chasuble - noun. a sleeveless outer vestment worn by a Catholic or High Anglican priest when celebrating Mass, typically ornate and having a simple hole for the head

choristers - noun. a member of a choir, esp. a child or young person singing the treble part in a church choir 2. a person who leads the singing of a church choir or congregation ORIGIN: late Middle English queristre, from Anglo-Norman French variant of Old French cueriste, from quer. The change in the first syllable in the 16th cent. was due to association with obsolete chorist [member of a choir or chorus,] but the older form quirister long survived.

saccade - noun. Technical. a rapid movement of the eye between fixation points ORIGIN: early 18th cent.: from French, literally 'violent pull,' from Old French saquer 'to pull.'

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Archeology, Earth-Dirts, Chemistry, and Medicine

lagerstatte - from Lager 'storage' Statte 'place'; plural Lagerstatten, is a sedimentary deposit that exhibits extraordinary fossils with exceptional preservation-- sometimes including preserved soft tissues. These formations may have resulted from carcass burial in an anoxic environment with minimal bacteria, thus delaying decomposition. Lagerstatten span geological time from the Neoproterozoic era to the present. Worldwide, some of the best examples of near-perfect fossilization are the Cambrian Maotianshan shales and Burgess Shale, the Devonian Hunsruck Slates, the Jurassic Solnhofen limestone, the Carboniferous Mazon Creek and the Cretaceous Yixian Formation localities.

Neoproterozoic - noun. Archeology. The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from 1,000 to 541 million years ago. The terminal Era of the formal Proterozoic Eon (or the informal "Precambrian"), it is further subdivided into the Tonian, Cryogenian, and Ediacaran Periods. The most severe glaciation known in the geologic record occurred during the Cryogenian, when ice sheets reached the equator and formed a possible "Snowball Earth". The earliest fossils of multicellular life are found in the Ediacaran, including the earliest animals.

Ediacaran - named after the Ediacara Hills of South Australia, is the last geological period of the Neoproterozoic Era and of the Proterozoic Eon, immediately preceding the Cambrian Period, the first period of the Paleozoic Era and of the Phanerozoic Eon.

anoxic - noun. Technical. an absence of oxygen 2. Medicine. an absence or deficiency of oxygen reaching the tissues; severe hypoxia

hypoxia - noun. Medicine. deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues; oxygen deficiency in a biotic environment leading to this

valence - noun. Chemistry. the combining power of an element , esp. as measured by the number of hydrogen atoms it can displace or combine with 2. adjective. relating to or denoting electrons involved in or available for chemical bond formation 3. Linguistics. the number of grammatical elements with which a particular word, esp. a verb, combines in a sentence

valance - noun. a length of decorative drapery attached to the canopy of a frame of a bed in order to screen the structure or the space beneath it; a length of decorative drapery hung above a window to screen the curtain fittings; an indirect-lighting fixture extending along the top of an interior wall; a dust duffle

valency - noun. Chemistry & Linguistics chiefly Brit. another term for 'valence.'

parthenogenesis - noun. Biology. reproduction from an ovum without fertilization, esp. as a normal process in some invertebrates and lower plants

dinoflagellate - noun. Biology. a single-celled organism with two flagella, occurring in large numbers in marine plankton and also found in fresh water. Some produce toxins that can accumulate in shellfish, resulting in poisoning when eaten. Division Dinophyta or class Dinophyceae, division Chromophycota (or phylum Dinophyta, kingdom Protista).

ephemeroptera - noun. Zoology. an order of insects that comprises the mayflies

deinonychus - noun. a dromaeosaurid dinosaur of the mid Cretaceous period, growing up to 11 feet (3.3m) in length. Genus Deinonychus , family Dromaeosauridae, suborder Theropoda.

deinococcus - a bacterium that can survive extremely high levels of radiation and therefore has high potential for radioactive waste cleanup; the only genus of the deinoccales group from the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum highly resistant to environmental hazards

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Feet & Eyes

sabaton - noun. solleret, armor plate that protects the foot; consists of mail with a solid toe and heel

solleret - armor plate that protects the foot; consists of mail with a solid toe and heel

sabin - adjective. of, relating to, or denoting an ancient Oscan-speaking people of the central Apennines in Italy, conquered and assimilated by the Romans in 290 B.C.

sabliere - noun. a sand pit

sabot - noun. a simple shoe, shaped and hollowed out from a single block of wood 2. A device that ensures the correct positioning of a bullet or shell in the barrel of a gun

sabulous - adjective. sandy or gritty

scotophil - adjective. Biology. growing or functioning best in darkness

scotoma - noun. a partial loss of vision or a blind spot in an otherwise normal visual field

whiting - noun. a slender-bodied marine fish (Merlangius merlangus) of the cod family. It lives in shallow European waters and is a commercially important food fish 2. Ground chalk used for purposes such as whitewashing and cleaning up metal plates

prolix - adjective. (of speech or writing} Using or containing too many words; tediously lengthy

ageusia - noun. Biology. Ageusia is the loss of taste functions of the tongue, particularly the inability to detect sweetness, sourness, bitterness, saltiness, and umami

umami - noun. a category of taste in food(besides sweet, sour, salt, and bitter), corresponding to the flavor of glutamates, especially monosodium glutamate ORIGIN: Japanese, literally 'deliciousness.'

animadversion - noun. Formal. criticism or censure

beadle - noun. British. a ceremonial officer of a church, college, or similar institution

brachymetropia - noun. same as myopia. nearsightedness; lack of imagination, foresight, or intellectual insight

colophon - noun. a publisher's emblem or imprint, esp. one on the title page or spine of a book 2. historical. a statement at the end of a book, typically with a printer's emblem, giving information about its authorship and printing

desquamation - verb. (of a layer of cells, e.g., of the skin) come off in scales or flakes ORIGIN: early 18th cent.: (in the sense [remove scales from] ): from Latin dequamat- 'scaled,' from the verb

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desquamare, from de- 'away from' + squama 'a scale.'

diegesis - noun. a narrative or plot, typically in a movie.

phytogeography - noun. the branch of botany that deals with the geographical distribution of plants

lucifugous - adjective. chiefly Zoology. shunning the light

lucifugal -

solifugous -

heliophobous -

chionophobous -

ombrophobous -

leucophilous -

finifugal -

nidifugous

phototropic -

grelifuge -

ombrophilous -

psammophilous -

dendrophilous -

limnophilous -

oikofugic -

nidicolous -

oenophile - noun. a connoisseur of wines.

oikonomia -

oikonomopoulos -

oikophobia - noun. Psychiatry. Oikophobia, also ecophobia, is a term used in psychiatry to refer to an aversion to home surroundings. It can also be used more generally to mean an abnormal fear of the home, or of the contents of a house ("fear of household appliances, equipment, bathtubs, household chemicals, and other common objects in the home"). The term derives from the Greek words oikos, meaning, 'household, house, or family' + phobia meaning "fear…disproportional to the actual danger posed". In 1808 the poet and essayist Robert Southey used the word to describe a desire (particularly by the English) to leave home and travel. Southey's usage as a synonym for wanderlust was picked up by other nineteenth century writers. In a 2004 book, the word was adapted by the British conservative philosopher Roger Scruton to mean "the repudiation of inheritance and home." He argued that is is "a stage through which the adolescent mind normally passes", but that it is a feature of some, typically leftist, political impulses, and ideologies which espouses xenophilia.

Robert Southey -

oikos - noun. an oikos(plural, English prefix: eco- for ecology and economics) is the ancient Greek equivalent of a household, house, or family.

Halkieriid - noun. Zoology. (also oikozetetes) The halkieriids are a group of fossil organisms from the Lower to Middle Cambrian. Their eponymous genus is Halkieria, which has been found on almost every continent in Lower to Mid Cambrian deposits, forming a large component of the small shelly fossil assemblages. The best known species is Halkieria evangelista, from the North Greenland Sirius Passet Lagerstatte, in which complete specimens were collected on an expedition in 1989. The fossils were described by Simon Conway Morris and John Peel in a short paper in 1990 in the journal Nature. Later a more thorough description was undertaken in 1995 in the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London and wider evolutionary implications were posed.

xenophilia - noun. an individual who is attracted to foreign peoples, manners, or cultures.

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The Magic Lantern and Britain Vs. India

Sciopticon - The magic lantern or Laterna Magica is an early type of image projector developed in the 17th century. The magic lantern has a concave mirror in front of a light source that gathers light and projects it through a slide with an image scanned onto it. The light rays cross an aperture (which is an opening at the front of the apparatus), and hit a lens. The lens throws an enlarged picture of the original image from the slide onto a screen. Main light sources used during the 17th century were candles or oil lamps. These light sources were quite inefficient and produced weak projections.

The invention of the Argand lamp in the 1790s helped to make the projected images brighter. The invention of the limelight in the 1820s made it even brighter, and following that the inventions of the electric arc lamp in the 1860s, and the incandescent electric lamps all further improved the projected image of the magic lantern. It was also an important invention for motion picture film and 45mm projectors because of its ability to screen moving images. To achieve this, mechanical slides were used to make the images move. This was done using two glass slides, one with the part of the picture that would remain stationary and one with the part of the picture that would move on a disc. The glass slides were placed one on top of the other in an orderly fashion and a hand-operated pulley wheel was used to turn the movable disc. The magic lantern also led directly to Eadweard Muybridge's invention of the zoopraxiscope, which was another forerunner for moving pictures.

Lahore Railway Station - The Lahore Junction railway station in Lahore, Pubjab, Pakistan was built by British colonists between 1859-1860 at the cost of half a million Rupees. It is the junction of Lahore-Amritsar railway line. It is of typical grand British architecture in South Asia during the British Raj period. The railway network established by the British was extensive and is one of their lasting contributions to the culture and infrastructure of this region.

The railway station has 11 platforms (1 to 9, with 2 extra platforms, 3A and 6A). Platform No. 1 is of special importance, as this platform is the destination of "Samjhauta Express", the train service between Pakistan and India.

British Raj - The British Raj (lit. "reign" in Hindi) is the term often used for British rule in the Indian subcontinent, usually but not exclusively for the period between 1858 and 1947. The term can also refer to a period of dominion. The region under British control, commonly called India in contemporary usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom (contemporaneously British-India). As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations and the United Nations, and a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900,1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936

Samjhauta Express - called the Friendship Express, is a twice-weekly train -- Tuesdays and Fridays -- that runs between Delhi and Attari in India and Lahore in Pakistan. The word samjhauta means "agreement", "accord" and "compromise" in both Hindi and Urdu. Until the reopening of the Thar Express, this was the only rail connection between the two countries. The train was started on July 22, 1976 following the Shimla Agreement and ran between Amritsar and Lahore, a distance of about 42 km. Following disturbances in Punjab in the late eighties, due to security reasons Indian Railways decided to terminate the service at Attari, where customs and immigration clearances take place. On April 14, 2000, in an agreement between India Railways and Pakistan Railways (PR), the distance was revised to cover just under three km.

Amritsar - noun. historically also known as Ramdaspur and colloquially as Ambarsar) is a city in the north-western part of India. It is the spiritual center for the Sikh religion and the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district in the state of Punjab. It is home to the Harmandir Sahib (referred to as the "Golden Temple" in the western media), the spiritual and cultural center for the Sikh religion. This important Sikh shrine attracts more visitors than the Taj Mahal with more than 100,000 visitors on week days alone and is the most popular destination for Non-resident Indians(NRI) in the whole of India. The city also houses the Sikh temporal and political authority, Akal Takht, as well as the Sikh Parliament. The 2011 Indian census reported the population of the city to be 1,132,761. Amritsar is situated 135 miles northwest of the state capital Chandigarh and is 20 miles east of Lahore, Pakistan and therefore, very close to India's western border with Pakistan. The main commercial activities include tourism, carpets and fabrics, farm produce, handicrafts, service trades, and light engineering. The city is known for its rich cuisine and culture, and for the tragic incident of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in 1919 under British Rule. Amritsar is home to Central Khalsa Orphanage, which was once home to Udham Singh, a prominent figure in the Indian independence movement.

Khalsa Orphanage -

Udham Singh - (b. December 26, 1899--July 31, 1940) was an Indian revolutionary, best known for assassinating Michael O'Dwyer in March 1940 in what has been described as an avenging of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. Singh changed his name to Ram Mohammad Singh Azad, symbolizing the equality of all faith and of the three major religions in India: Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism. Singh is considered one of the best-known revolutionaries of the Indian independence struggle; he is also sometimes referred to as Shaheed-i-Azam Sardar Udham Singh (the expression "Shaheed-i-Azam" means "the great martyr"). Bhagat Singh and Singh along with Chandrasekhar Azad, Rajguru and Sukhdev, were among the most famous revolutionaries in the first half of the 20th-century for India. For their actions, the British government labeled these men as "India's earliest Marxists",

Michael O'Dwyer -

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre - Jallianwala Bagh massacre, involving the killing of over 300 Indian civilians by a senior British military officer, Reginald Edward Harry Dyer. On April 13, 1919, over twenty thousand unarmed Indians (Sikhs & Hindus), peacefully assembled in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, to listen to several prominent local leaders speak out against British colonial rule in India and against the arrest and deportation of Dr. Satya Pal, Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew, and a few others under the unpopular Rowlatt Act. Singh and his friends from the orphanage were serving water to the crowd.

Rowlatt Act -

Dr. Satya Pal -

Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew -

Khalsa - The collective body of all initiated Sikhs represented by the five beloved-ones and can be called the Guru Panth, the embodiment of the Guru and the final temporal Guru/leader of the Sikhs. The word Khalsa translates to "Sovereign/Free". Another interpretation is that of being "Pure/Genuine." The Khalsa was inaugurated on March 30, 1699, by Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru. From then on the temporal leadership of the Sikhs was passed on to the Khalsa with the bestowed title of "Guru Panth" and spiritual leadership was passed on to the Guru Granth Sahib with the Khalsa being responsible for all executive, military, and civil authority in the Sikh society. The Khalsa is also called the nation of the Sikhs.

The Sikhs of the Khalsa can be identified with the given Five Ks and titles of Singh and Kaur. This happens after being baptized to the order of the Khalsa. This happens after being baptized to the order of the Khalsa. The tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh at an event which coincided with the Vaisakhi Day (of the new lunar month Baisakh Samvat 1756) in the year 1699 at Kesgarh, in Anandpur initiated that every Sikh becomes Amritdhari "[Having taken Amrit]" and follow the Five Ks; which are not merely symbols but display commitment to the philosophy of Guru Nanak Dev like a uniform of organization.

Amrit - also Amrita or Amrut is a Sanskrit word that literally means "immortality", and is often referred to in texts as nectar. The word's earliest occurrence is in the Rigveda, where it is one of several synonyms of "soma" as the drink which confers immortality upon the gods. It is related etymologically to the Greek "ambrosia", and it carries the same meaning. It has various significances in different dharmic traditions. "Amrit" or "Amrut" is also a common Hindu first name for men; the feminine form is "Amrita" or "Amruta."

Amrita are also fourteen treasure jewels(Ratnas) that emerged from Samudra manthan ocean. The fourth Ratna which emerged is known as Kaustubha, the divine jewel of Vishnu.

Samudra manthan - In Hinduism, Samudra manthan or Ksheera Sagara Mathanam, meaning Churning of the Ocean of Milk is one of the most famous periods in the Puranas. The story appears in the Bhagavata Purana, the Mahabharata, and the Vishnu Purana. In literal terms, this tale is an allegorical description of what transpires during a kundalini awakening process. Kundalini is a latent energy that lays dormant in the spine. Upon awakening, it rises in a sensation akin to a slithering snake, up the spinal column (Meru-danda, represented by Mount Meru in the story).

Taj Mahal - a mausoleum at Agra, India, built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan(b. 1592-1666) in memory of his favorite wife, completed c. 1649. Set in formal gardens, the domed building in white marble is reflected in a pool flanked by cypresses. ORIGIN: perhaps a corruption of Persian Mumtaz Mahal, from mumtaz 'chosen one' (the title of the wife of Shah Jahan) and mahal 'abode.'

cypress - noun. an evergreen coniferous tree with small, rounded, woody cones and flattened shoots bearing small, scalelike leaves. Cupressus Chamaecyparis, and other genera, family Cupressaceae : many species, including the columnar Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), common throughout southern Europe. A tree of this type, or branches from it, is a symbol of mourning.

cuprous - adjective. Chemistry. of copper with a valence of one; of copper

limner - noun. chiefly Historical. a painter, esp. of portraits or miniatures.

columnar - adjective. see also COLUMN

entablature - noun. Architecture. a horizontal, continuous lintel on a classical building supported by columns or a wall, comprising the architrave, frieze, and cornice.

lintel - noun. a horizontal support of timber, stone, concrete, or steel across the top of a door or window ORIGIN: Middle English : from Old French, based on late Latin liminare , from Latin limen 'threshold.'

architrave - noun. 1. (in classical architecture) a main beam resting across the tops of columns, specifically the lower third entablature. 2. the molded frame around a doorway or window; a molding around the exterior of an arch ORIGIN: mid 16th cent.: from French, from Italian, from archi- 'chief' + -trave from Latin trabs, trab- 'a beam.'

frieze - noun. a broad horizontal band of sculpted or painted decoration, esp. on a wall near the ceiling 2. a horizontal paper strip mounted on a wall to give a similar effect. 3. Architecture. the part of an entablature between the architrave and the cornice. 4. noun. heavy, coarse woolen cloth with a nap, usually on one side only.

nap - verb. sleep lightly or briefly, esp. during the day 2. noun. the raised hairs, threads, or similar small projections on the surface of fabric or suede (used especially with reference to the direction in which they naturally lie)  3. noun. a card game resembling whist in which players declare the number of tricks they expect to take, up to five ORIGIN: Early 19th cent.: abbreviation of NAPOLEON, the original name of the card game. 4. verb. (of a horse) refuse, esp. habitually, to go on at the rider's instructions; jib. ORIGIN: 1950s: back-formation from nappy, an adjective first used to describe heady beer (late Middle English), later used in the sense [intoxicated by drink] (early 18th century), and since the 1920s used to describe a disobedient horse.

cornice - noun. an ornamental molding around the wall of a room just below the ceiling, a horizontal molded projection crowning a building or structure, esp. the uppermost member of the entablature of an order, surmounting the frieze. 2. noun. an overhanging mass of hardened snow at the edge of a mountain or precipice

precipice - noun. a very steep rock face or cliff, typically a tall one ORIGIN: late 16th cent. (denoting a headlong fall): from French precipice, or Latin praecipitium 'abrupt descent,' from praeceps, praecip(it)- 'steep, headlong.'

praecox - from Latin, meaning "very early". It is often used as a qualifying adjective in Latin binomials, and could mean "early flowering", "primitive", "premature" or "early onset" (in the case of medical conditions).

binomials - noun. Mathematics. an algebraic expression of the sum or the difference of two terms 2. a two-part name, esp. the Latin name of a species of living organism (consisting of the genus followed by the specific epithet). 3. Grammar. a noun phrase with two heads joined by a conjunction, in which the order is relatively fixed( as in knife and fork).

specific epithet - noun. chiefly Botany & Microbiology. the second element in the Latin binomial name of a species, which follows the generic name and distinguishes the species from others in the same genus.

Shah Jahan - A'la Azad Abul Muzaffar Shahab ud-Din Mohammad Khurram, known by his imperial name Shah Jahan (in Persian: king of the world) also spelled Shah Jehan and Shahjehan(b. January 5,1592--January 22, 1666) was the Indian emperor of the Mughal Empire in South Asia from 1628 until 1658. He was the fifth emperor after Babur, Humayun, Akbar, and Jahangir. While young he was the favorite of his legendary grandfather Akbar the Great. At a young age, he was chosen as successor to the Mughal throne after the death of his father, Emperor Jahangir, in 1627. He is considered one of the greatest Mughals. His reign has been called the Golden Age of the Mughals and one of the most prosperous ages of Indian civilization. Like Akbar, he was eager to expand his vast empire. In 1658, he fell ill and was confined by his son Emperor Aurangzeb in Agra Fort until his death in 1666.

The period of his reign was the golden age of Mughal architecture. Shah Jahan erected many splendid monuments, the most famous of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, built in 1632-1648 as a tomb for his beloved wife, Empress Mumtaz Mahal. The Moti Masjid, Agra and many other buildings in Agra, the Red Fort and the Jama Masjid in Delhi, mosques in Lahore, extensions to Lahore Fort and a mosque in Thatta also commemorate him. The famous Takht-e-Taus or the Peacock Throne, said to be worth millions of dollars by modern estimates, also dates from his reign. He was also the founder of the new imperial capital called Shahjahanabad, now known as Old Delhi. Other important buildings of Shah Jahan's rule were the Diwan-i-Am and Diwan-i-Khas in the Red Fort Complex in Delhi and the Moti Masjid in the Lahore Fort. Shah Jahan is also believed to have had a very refined taste in the arts and architecture, and is credited with having commissioned about 777 gardens in Kashmir, his favorite summer residence. A few of these gardens survive, attracting thousands of tourists every year.

The Peacock Throne -

Thatta -

Akbar the Great -  

Akal Takht -

Thar Express

temporal -

Taj Mahal -

Bhagavata Purana -

Mahabhrata -

Vishnu Purana -

kundalini -

allegorical -

Puranas -

Kaustubha -

Dharma -

Rigveda -

Sikhism - noun. a monotheistic religion founded in Punjab in the 15th century by Guru Nanak. Sikh teaching centers on spiritual liberation and social justice and harmony, though the community took on a militant aspect during early conflicts. The last guru, Gobind Singh(b.1666-1708), passed his authority to the scripture, the Adi Granth, and to the Khalsa, the body of initiated Sikhs. The term "Sikh" means disciple or student. A Sikh is a disciple/subject of the Guru.

Harmandir Sahib(Golden Triangle) - also Darbar Sahib, is a prominent Sikh Gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India. It was built by the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arja, in the 16th Century. In 1604, Guru Arjan completed the Adi Granth, the holy scripture of Sikhism, and installed the Gurdwara. There are four doors to get into the Harmandir Sahib, which symbolize the openness of the Sikhs towards all people and religions. The present day Gurdwara was rebuilt in 1764 by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia with the help of other Sikh Misls. In the early nineteenth century, Maharaja Ranjit Singh secured the Punjab region from outside attack and covered the upper floors of the Gurdwara with gold, which gives it its distinctive appearance and its English name.

Shimla Agreement -

Assassination of Benazir Bhutto -

Indian Parliament -

Swami Aseemanand -

Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh -

limelight - noun. also known as calcium light is a type of stage lighting once used in theaters and music halls. An intense illumination is created when an oxyhydrogen flame is directed at a cylinder of quicklime(calcium oxide), which can be heated to 2,572 ºC(4,662 ºF) before melting. The light is produced by a combination of incandescence and candoluminescence. Although it has long since been replaced by electric lighting, the term has nonetheless survived, as someone in the public eye is still said to be "in the limelight." The actual lights are called limes, a term which has been transferred to electrical equivalents. A pun is sometimes made in theater productions on the two meanings of "lime" by using lime-colored light in a production.

The limelight effect was discovered in the 1820s by Goldsworthy Gurney, based on his work with the "oxy-hydrogen blowpipe," credit for which is normally given to Robert Hare. In 1825, a Scottish engineer, Thomas Drummond (b.1797-1840), saw a demonstration of the effect by Michael Faraday and realized that the light would be useful for surveying. Drummond built a working version in 1826, and the device is sometimes called the Drummond Light after him. Limelight was first used in public in the Convent Garden Theater in London in 1837, and enjoyed widespread use in theaters around the world in the 1860s and 1870s. Limelights were employed to highlight solo performers in the same manner as modern followspots(spotlights). Limelight was replaced by electric arc lighting in the 19th century.

candoluminescence - noun. the light given off by certain materials at elevated temperatures (usually when exposed to a flame) that has an intensity at some wavelengths which can be higher than the blackbody emission expected from incandescence at the same temperature. The phenomenon is notable in certain transition metal and rare earth metal oxide materials(ceramics) such as zinc oxide and cerium oxide or thorium dioxide. The existence of this phenomenon and the underlying mechanism have been the subject of extensive research and debate since the first reports of it in the 1800s. The topic was of a particular interest before the introduction of electric lighting, when most artificial light was produced by fuel combustion. The main alternative explanation for candoluminescence is that it is simply "selective" thermal emission in which the material has a very high emissivity in the visible spectrum, and a very weak emissivity in the part of the spectrum where the blackbody thermal emission would be highest; in such a system, the emitting material will tend to retain a higher temperature because of the lack of invisible radiative cooling.

arc lamp - noun. the general term for a class of lamps that produce light by an electric arc(also called a voltaic arc). The lamp consists of two electrodes, first made from carbon but typically made today of tungsten, which are separated by gas. The type of lamp is often named by the gas contained in the bulb; including neon, argon, xenon, krypton, sodium, metal halide, and mercury, or by the type of electrode as in carbon-arc-lamps. The common fluorescent lamp is a low-pressure mercury arc lamp.

An arc is the discharge that occurs when a gas is ionized. A high voltage is pulsed across the lamp to "ignite" or "strike" the arc, after which the discharge can be maintained at a lower voltage. The "strike" requires an electrical circuit with an igniter and a ballast. The ballast is wired in series with the lamp and performs two functions.

First, when the power is first switched on, the igniter/starter (which is wired in parallel across the lamp) sets up a small current through the ballast and starter. This creates a small magnetic field within the ballast windings. A moment later the starter interrupts the current flow from the ballast, which has a high inductance and therefore tries to maintain the current flow (the ballast opposes any change in current through it); it cannot, as there is no longer a 'circuit'. As a result, a high voltage appears across the ballast momentarily - to which the lamp is connected, therefore the lamp receives this high voltage across it which 'strikes' the arc within the tube/lamp. The circuit will repeat this action until the lamp is ionized enough to sustain the arc.

When the lamp sustains the arc, the ballast performs its second function, to limit the current to that needed to operate the lamp. The lamp, ballast and igniter are rate-matched to each other; these parts must be replaced with the same rating as the failed component or the lamp will not work.

The color of the light emitted by the lamp changes as its electrical characteristics change with temperature and time. Lightning is a similar principle where the atmosphere is ionized by the high potential difference (voltage) between the earth and storm clouds.

The temperature of the arc in an arc lamp can reach several thousand degrees Celsius. The outer glass envelope can reach 500 ºC, therefore before servicing one must ensure the bulb has cooled sufficiently to handle. Often, if these types of lamps are turned off or lose their power supply, one cannot restrike the lamp again for several minutes (called cold restrike lamps). However, some lamps (mainly fluorescent tubes/energy saving lamps) can be restruck as soon as they are turned off (called hot restrike lamps.)

Argand lamp - noun. a home lighting oil lamp producing a light output of 6 to 10 candela  which was invented and patented in 1780 by Aime Argand. Aside from the improvement in brightness, the more complete combustion of the wick and oil required much less frequent trimming of the wick.

In France, they are known as "Quinquets" after Antoine-Arnoult Quinquet, a pharmacist in Paris, who used the idea originated by Argand and popularized it in France. He is sometimes credited with the addition of the glass chimney to the lamp.

The Argand lamp had a sleeve-shaped candle wick mounted so that air can pass both through the center of the wick and also around the outside of the wick before being drawn into the cylindrical chimney which steadies the flame and improves the flow of air. Early models used ground glass which was sometimes tinted around the wick. Later models used a mantle of thorium dioxide suspended over the flame, creating a bright, steady light.

An Argand lamp used whale oil, colza, olive oil, or other vegetable oil as fuel which was supplied by a gravity feed from a reservoir mounted above the burner. A disadvantage of the original Argand arrangement was that the oil reservoir needed to be above the level of the burner because the heavy, sticky vegetable oil would not rise far up the wick. This made the lamps top heavy and cast a shadow in one direction away from the lamp's flame. The Carcel lamp of 1800 and Franchot's moderator lamp of 1835 avoided these problems. The same principle was also used for cooking and boiling water due to its 'affording much the strongest heat without smoke.'

The Carcel Lamp - noun. The Carcel lamp was an efficient lighting device used in the nineteenth century for domestic purposes and in France as the standard measure for illumination. The lamp was invented by the French watchmaker Bernard Guillaume Carcel (b.1750-1818) to overcome the disadvantages of the Argand-type lamps then in use. The vegetable oil - mostly colza - oils then available were thick and would not travel far up a wick. The Argand lamps used a gravity feed which meant that the oil reservoir was located above the burner, casting a shadow, and making the lamp top heavy. Carcel designed a lamp with the oil reservoir under the burner, in the body of the lamp. To keep the oil moving up to the burner, Carcel housed a clockwork mechanism in the lamp base that drove a small pump submerged in the oil tank. The winding key was located at the bottom of the lamp base.

The advantages Carcel claimed for his lamp in his 1800 patent in Paris were that the movement operated unattended, the oil could be used to the last drop, the lamp would stay lit for sixteen hours continuously without refilling, and it provided illumination for several persons at the same time with a single burner. They were more complex devices however, and were not popular outside major European cities. This was partially due to the necessity of having to return them to the (mostly European) manufacturers for repair. The French physical standard Carcel lamp consisted of a cylindrical Argand burner, and gave the standard brightness when 42 grammes of colza oil were consumed per hour. The supply and draught were regulated by clockwork.

inductance - noun. Physics. the property of an electric conductor or circuit that causes an electromotive force to be generated by a change in the current flowing

ionized - verb. (usu. be ionized) convert (an atom, molecule, or substance) into an ion or ions, typically by removing one or more electrons. ionizable adjective, ionization noun.

halide - noun. Chemistry. a binary compound of a halogen with another element or group

metal halides - noun. compounds between metals and halogens. Some such as sodium chloride are ionic, while others are covalently bonded. Covalently bonded metal halides may be discrete molecules, such as uranium hexafluoride, or they may form polymeric structures, such as palladium chloride.

Halide Nusret Zorlutuna - (b. 1901 - June 10, 1984) was a Turkish poet and novelist. Zorlutuna was born in Istanbul, Ottoman Empire as the daughter of Mehmet Selim Bey, a journalist and political prisoner. Brought up in exile with her father, she later married and travelled with an army officer. A teacher of Turkish literature in schools, she took part in movements for the rights of women and children.

Poetry

- Geceden Tasan Dertler (Sorrow Flooding Off Night, 1930)
- Yayla Turkusu (Song of the Plateau, 1943)
- Yurdumun Dort Bucagi (Every Place of My Country, 1950)
- Ellerin Bombos (My Hands Are Empty, 1967)

Novels

- Kuller (Ashes, 1921)
- Sisli Geceler (Misty Nights, 1922)
- Gulun Babasi Kim (Who is Father of Rose, 1933)
- Buyukanne (Grandmother, 1971)
- Aydinlik Kapr (The Bright Gate, 1974)
- Ask ve Zafer (The Love and the Victory, 1978)
- Bir Devrin Romanr (Novel of an Age, 2004).

Short Stories

- Beyaz Selvi (The White Cypress, 1945).

Letters

- Hanim Mektuplari (Lady Letters, 1923)

Autobiography

- Benim Kucuk Dostlarum (My Little Friends, 1977)

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uranium hexafluoride - noun. Chemistry. referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produced fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. It forms solid grey crystals at standard temperature and pressure (STP), is highly toxic, reacts violently with water, and is corrosive to most metals. It reacts mildly with aluminium, forming a thin surface layer of AIF3 that resists further reaction.

Milled uranium ore--U3O8 or "yellowcake"--is dissolved in nitric acid, yielding a solution of uranyl nitrate UO2(NO3)2. Pure uraynl nitrate is obtained by solvent extraction, then treated with ammonia to produce ammonium diuranate ("ADU", (NH4)2U2O7). Reduction with hydrogen gives UO2, which is converted with hydrofluoric acid(HF) to uranium tetrafluoride, UF4. Oxidation with fluorine yields UF6.

During nuclear reprocessing, uranium is reacted with chlorine trifluoride to give UF6 : U + 2 ClF3 →UF6 + Cl2

uranyl - noun. Chemistry. the cation UO 2 2+ , the uraynl ion is an oxycation of uranium in the oxidation state +6, with the chemical formula [UO2]2+. It has a linear structure with short U-O bonds, indicative of the presence of multiple bonds between uranium and oxygen. Four or more ligands are bound to the uranyl ion in an equatorial plane. The uraynl ion forms many complexes, particularly with ligands that have oxygen donor atoms. Complexes of the uraynl ion are important in the extraction of uranium from its ores and in nuclear fuel processing.

ligands - noun. Chemistry. an ion or molecule attached to a metal atom by coordinate bonding 2. Biochemistry. a molecule that binds to another (usually larger) molecule ORIGIN: 1950s: from Latin ligandus 'that can be tied,' gerundive of ligare 'to bind.'

oxycation - noun. Chemistry. a polyatomic ion with a positive charge that contains oxygen

polyatomic ion - noun. Chemistry. also known as a molecular ion, is a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit. The prefix "poly-" means "many," in Greek, but even ions of two atoms are commonly referred to as polyatomic. In older literature, a polyatomic ion is also referred to as a radical, and less commonly, as a radical group. In contemporary usage, the term radical refers to free radicals that are (not necessarily charged) species with an unpaired electron.

An example of a polyatomic ion is the hydroxide ion - consisting of one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom, hydroxide has a charge of -1. Its chemical formula OH−. An ammonium ion is made up of one nitrogen atom and four hydrogen atoms: it has a charge of +1, and its chemical formula is NU4+.

Polyatomic ions are often useful in the context of acid-base chemistry or in the formation of salts. A polyatomic ion can often be considered as the conjugate acid/base of a neutral molecule. For example, the conjugate base of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is the polyatomic hydrogen sulfate anion (HSO4-). The removal of another hydrogen ion yields the sulfate anion (SO42-). Examples: Acetate(C2H3O2), Benzoate(C6H5COO−), and Cyanide (CN−).

cathode - noun. the negatively charged electrode by which electrons enter an electrical device; the positively charged electrode of an electrical device, such as a primary cell that supplies current ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: from Greek kathodos 'way down,' from kata 'down' + hados 'way.'

cation - noun. Chemistry. a positively charged ion, i.e. one that would be attracted to the cathode in electrolysis.

anion - noun. Chemistry. a negatively charged ion, i.e. one that would be attracted to the anode in electrolysis

ammonium diuranate -

uranium tetrafluoride -

chlorine trifluoride -

uranyl nitrate -

nitric acid -

polymer - noun. Chemistry. a substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of a large number of similar units bonded together, e.g., many synthetic organic materials used as plastics and resins ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: from German, from Greek polumeros 'having many parts,' from polu- 'many' + meros 'a share.'

palladium chloride - noun. Chemistry. also known as palladium dichloride and palladous chloride. are the chemical compounds with the formula PdCl2. PdCl2 is a common starting material in palladium chemistry - palladium-based catalysts are of particular value in organic synthesis. It is prepared by chlorination of palladium.

palladium - noun. Archaic. a safeguard or source of protection. 2. noun. Chemistry. the chemical element of atomic number 46, a rare silvery-white metal resembling platinum ORIGIN: late Middle English (in the Greek sense): via Latin from Greek palladion, denoting an image of the goddess Pallas (Athena), on which the safety of Troy was believed to depend.

organic synthesis - noun. Organic Chemistry. a special branch of chemical synthesis concerned with the construction of organic compounds via organic reactions. Organic molecules can often contain a higher level of complexity compared to purely inorganic compounds, so the synthesis of organic compounds has developed into one of the most important branches of organic chemistry. There are two main areas of research within the general area of organic synthesis: total synthesis and methodology.

methodology - noun. a system of methods used in a particular area of study or activity

lacrimation - also lachrymation is another word for tears.

rhinorrhea - a condition where the nasal cavity is filled with a significant amount of mucous fluid. The condition commonly known as "runny nose", occurs relatively frequently.

tungsten -

krypton -

xenon -

argon -

neon -

ballast -

colza oil - noun. a nondrying oil obtained from the seeds of Brassica rapa, var. oleifera, a variety of the plant that produces turnips. Colza is extensively cultivated in France, Belgium, the United States, the Netherlands, Germany, and Poland. In France, especially, the extraction of the oil is an important industry. In commerce, colza is classed with rapeseed oil, to which it is very closely allied in both source and properties. It is a comparatively nonodoriferous oil of a yellow color, having a specific gravity varying between 0.912 and 0.920. The cake left after extraction of the oil is a valuable feed ingredient for pigs.

thorium dioxide - also called thorium(IV) oxide is a crystalline solid, often white or yellow in color. It was formerly known as thoria or thorina. It is produced mainly as a by-product of lanthanide and uranium production. Thorianite is the name of the mineralogical form of thorium dioxide. It is moderately rare and crystallizes in isometric systems. The melting point of thorium oxide is 3300 ºC -- the highest of all known oxides. Only a few elements (including tungsten and carbon) and a few compounds (including tantalum carbide) have higher melting points.

The compound is radioactive due to the radioactivity of thorium. Thorium dioxide can be used as a nuclear fuel. The high thermal stability of thorium dioxide allows application in flame spraying and high temperature ceramics. Thorium dioxide was the primary ingredient in the X-ray contrast medium Thorotrast

Thorotrast

Thorianite -

lanthanide -

tungsten -

tantalum carbide -

carbon -

vilify - verb. (-fies,-fied) speak or write about in an abusively disparaging manner

opprobrium - noun. harsh criticism or censure; the public disgrace arising from someone's shameful conduct 2. archaic. an occasion or cause of reproach or disgrace ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: from Latin, literally 'infamy,' from opprobrum, from ob- 'against' + probrum 'disgraceful act.'

denigrate - verb. criticize unfairly; disparage ORIGIN: late Middle English (in the sense [blacken, make dark] ): from Latin denigrat- 'blackened,' from the verb denigrare, from de- 'away, completely' + nigrare (from niger 'black').

calumny - noun. the making of false and defamatory statements in order to damage someone's reputation; slander; a false and slanderous statement

flak - noun. strong criticism 2. anti-aircraft fire

castigate - verb. formal. reprimand (someone) severely ORIGIN: early 17th cent.: from Latin castigare 'reprove,' from castus 'pure, chaste.'

contumely - noun. (pl. -lies) insolent or insulting language or treatment ORIGIN: late Middle English : from Old French contumelie, from Latin contumelia, perhaps from con- 'with' + tumere 'to swell.'

odium - noun. general or widespread hatred or disgust directed toward someone as a result of their actions : her affair had made her the target of opprobrium and odium. 2. disgrace over something hated or shameful

Eadweard Muybridge -

invective -

obloquy - noun. strong public criticism or verbal abuse; disgrace, esp. that brought about by public abuse

brickbat - noun. a remark or comment which is highly critical and typically insulting; a piece of brick, typically when used as a weapon

excoriate - verb. formal. censure or criticize severely 2. chiefly Medical. damage or remove part of the surface(of the skin).

nummamorous -

xerophilous -

anthophilous -

belgard -

hydrophilous -

nemophilous -

philharmonic - adjective. devoted to music (chiefly used in the names of orchestras); noun. a philharmonic orchestra or the society that sponsors it

philippic - noun. poetic/literary. a bitter attack or denunciation, esp. a verbal one

harangue - noun. a lengthy and aggressive speech 2. verb. lecture (someone) at length in an aggressive and critical manner

onslaught - noun. a fierce or destructive attack; a large quantity of people or things that is difficult to cope with ORIGIN: early 17th cent.: (also in the form anslaight): from Middle Dutch aenslag, from aen 'on' + slag 'blow.' The change in the ending was due to association with (now obsolete) slaught [slaughter.]

silage - noun. grass or other green fodder compacted and stored in airtight conditions, typically in a silo, without first being dried, and used as animal feed in the winter

polemic - noun. a strong verbal or written attack on someone or something; (usually polemics) the art or practice of engaging in controversial debate or dispute ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: via medieval Latin from Greek polemikos from polemos 'war.'

fulmination - noun. (usually fulminations) an expression of vehement protest; a violent explosion or a flash like lightning

psammophile - noun. a sand-loving organism

polytonal - noun. the simultaneous use of two or more keys in a musical composition

photophor - noun. Chemistry. Calcium phosphide (CP, Ca3P2) is a chemical used in incendiary bombs. It has the appearance of red-brown crystalline powder or grey lumps with a melting point of 1600 ºC. Its trade name is Photophor for the incendiary use or Polytanol for the use as rodenticide

arenophile - noun. one who collects sand samples, the interest of the hobby lying in the variety of texture, color, mineralogy, and location. This hobby may include sand deposited on coastlines throughout the world. Some collectors may trade sands with fellow arenophiles.

The rarest sands are found at the sites Pitcairn's Island and Easter Island. Some collectors have included sand from rivers and mineral deposits if they meet the criteria according to diameter and physical properties, ensuring that the samples have met proper sand definition. Only three places on earth have green sand; recently a supply has been found in Brazil. Papakolea Beach (also known as Green Sand Beach, Mahana Beach, and erroneously, Pu'u Mahana) is a green sand beach located at South Point, in the Ka'u district of the island of Hawaii. One of only two green sand beaches in the world, the other being in Guam, the beach gets distinctive coloring from olivine crystals found in a nearby cinder cone.

cinder cone - noun. a cinder cone or scoria cone is a steep conical hill of tephra that accumulates around and downwind from a volcanic vent

pyroclastic - adjective. relating to, consisting of, or denoting fragments of rock erupted by a volcano

tephra -

scoria cone -

olivine - noun. an olive-green, gray-green, or brown mineral occurring widely in basalt, peridotite, and other basic igneous rocks. It is a silicate containing varying proportions of magnesium, iron, and other elements.

basalt -

peridotite - noun. Geology. a dense, coarse-grained plutonic rock containing a large amount of olivine, believed to be the main constituent of the earth's mantle

plutonic - adjective. Geology. relating to or denoting igneous rock formed by solidification at considerable depth beneath the earth's surface 2. relating to the underworld or the god Pluto.

Pluto - noun. Greek Mythology. the god of the underworld. Also called Hades . 2. Astronomy. the most remote known planet of the solar system, usually ninth in order from the sun, discovered in 1930 by Clyde Tombaugh. Pluto usually orbits beyond Neptune at an average distance of 5,900 million km from the sun, although its orbit is so eccentric that at perihelion it is closer to the sun than Neptune (as in 1979-99). Pluto is smaller than earth's moon (diameter about 2,250 km), but it was discovered in 1978 to have its own satellite, Charon, which is so large that the pair should properly be regarded as a double planet.

aphelion - noun. Astronomy. the point in the orbit of a planet, asteroid, or comet at which it is furthest from the sun ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: alteration of modern Latin aphelium (by substitution of the Greek inflection -on), from Greek aph' helion 'from the sun.'

perihelion - noun. Astronomy. the point in the orbit of a planet, asteroid, or comet at which it is closest to the sun. The opposite of aphelion.

Clyde Tombaugh -

igneous - adjective. Geology. (of rock) having solidified from lava or magma; relating to or involving volcanic processes; rare. of fire, fiery. ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: from Latin igneus (from ignis 'fire') + -OUS.

silicate - noun. Chemistry. a salt in which the anion contains both silicon and oxygen, esp. one of the anion SiO 4 2− .

Mahanagar - noun. film. a 1963 film directed by Satyajit Ray. Based on a short story, Abataranika Narendranath Mitra, it narrates the story of a housewife who disconcerts her traditionalist family by getting a job as a saleswoman. It marks the first screen appearance of Jaya Bhaduri(now Jaya Bachchan), who later went on to become one of Bollywood's leading actresses.

Papakolea -

Pitcairn's Island -

pygophilous - noun. a strong fondness for buttocks or rumps                                                                              

ternessus -

theophile -

turtledove -

zoophily -

viscerotonic -

bacchant -

coenaculous -

cysteine -

limerence -

passerine -

raffish -

spermophile - noun. any of various burrowing rodents of the squirrel family, especially of the genus Spermophilus or Citellus, sometimes sufficiently numerous to do much damage to crops, as the ground squirrels and susliks.

susliks - noun. a common ground squirrel or spermophile of Europe or Asia 2. noun. the fur of this animal

thermophilic -

uxorial - adjective. of or relating to a wife ORIGIN: early 19th cent.: from Latin uxor 'wife' + IAL

djabelek -

halophile -

omnibenevolence -

ossett -

taraka -

tarok -

austere - adjective. severe or strict in manner, attitude, or appearance 2. (of living conditions or a way of life) having no comforts or luxuries; harsh or ascetic 3. having an extremely plain and simple style or appearance; unadorned 4. (of an economic policy or measure) designed to reduce a budget deficit, esp. by cutting public expenditure.

bebhionn - noun. or Saturn XXXVII (provisional designation S/2004 S 11) is a natural satellite of Saturn. Its discovery was announced by Scott S. Sheppard, David C. Jewitt, Jan Kleyna, and Brian G. Marsden on May 4, 2005, from observations taken between December 12, 2004, and March 9, 2005. Named in April 2007 after Bebinn, an early Irish mythology goddess of birth, who was renowned for her beauty.

blackpool pleasure beach - noun. is a borough, seaside town, and unitary authority area of Lancashire, in North West England. It is situated along England's northwest coast by the Irish Sea, between the Ribble and Wyre estuaries 17.5 miles northwest of Preston, 27 miles north of Liverpool, 30 miles northwest of Bolton and 40 miles northwest of Manchester. It has an estimated population of 142,100, and a population density that makes it the fourth most densely populated borough of England and Wales outside Greater London.

Throughout the Middle Ages and Early Modern period, Blackpool was a coastal hamlet in Lancashire's Hundred of Amounderness, and remained such until the mid-18th century when it became fashionable in England to travel to the coast during the summer to bathe in sea water to improve well-being. In 1781, visitors attracted to Blackpool's 7-mile sandy beach were able to use a newly built private road, built by Thomas Clifton and Sir Henry Hoghton. Stagecoaches began running to Blackpool from Manchester in the same year, and from Halifax in 1782. In the early 19th century, Henry Banks and his son-in-law John Cocker erected new buildings in Blackpool such that its population grew from less than 500 in 1801 to over 2,500 in 1851. St John's Church in Blackpool was consecrated in 1821.

Blackpool rose to prominence as a major center of tourism in England when a railway was built in the 1850s connecting it to the industrialized regions of Northern England. The railway made it much easier and cheaper for visitors to reach Blackpool, triggering an influx of settlers, such that in 1876 Blackpool was incorporated as a borough, governed by its own town council and aldermen. In 1881 Blackpool was a booming resort with a population of 14,000 and a promenade complete with piers, fortune-tellers, public houses, trams, donkey rides, fish-and-chip shops, and theaters. By 1901 the population of Blackpool was 47,000, by which time its place was cemented as "the archetypal British seaside resort." By 1951 it had grown to 147,000 inhabitants.

Shifts in tastes, combined with opportunities for Britons to travel overseas, supplanted Blackpool's status as a leading resort during the late 20th century. Nevertheless, Blackpool's urban fabric and economy remains relatively undiversified, and firmly rooted in the tourism sector, and the borough's seafront continues to attract millions of visitors every year. In addition to its sandy beaches, Blackpool's major attractions and landmarks include Blackpool Tower, Blackpool Illuminations, the Pleasure Beach, Blackpool Zoo, Sandcastle Water Park, the Winter Gardens, and the UK's only surviving first-generation tramway. Blackpool is also noted for its political autonomy, independent of Lancashire County Council.

consecrated - verb. make or declare something sacred

Hundred of Amounderness -

Preston -

Lancashire, North West England -

unitary authority area -

bordar -

bridoon -

calash -

caucasian psychosis -

chariotee -

dative -

delusory -

durante -

dysthymia -

equipage -

euterpe -

felicitate -

freebooter -

genital personality -

gentleman-farmer -

gladstone -

gourmand -

gree -

h'm -

heigh -

keif - noun. a variant spelling of kif, smoking material, such as Indian hemp, used especially in the Maghreb; The euphoria caused by smoking this material

klismaphilia -

lanate - adjective. having or consisting of woolly hairs 2. adjective. Biology. having or consisting of a wooly covering of hairs

planate - adjective. having been flattened; two-dimensional, planar

licentiousness - adjective. promiscuous and unprincipled in sexual matters; archaic. disregarding accepted rules or conversations, esp. in grammar or literary style

lorette - noun. chiefly French. Pommes de terre, a fried potato dish from French cuisine.

manna - noun. (in the bible) the substance miraculously supplied as food to the Israelites in the wilderness (Exodus 16).

• an unexpected gratuitous benefit
• (in Christian contexts) spiritual nourishment, esp. the Eucharist.
• a sweet secretion from the manna ash or a similar plant, used as a mild laxative and as a principal source of mannitol

mathematical beauty -

onanism - noun. formal. 1. masturbation 2. coitus interruptus

pall - noun. a cloth spread over a coffin, hearse, or tomb
• figurative a dark cloud or covering of smoke, dust, or similar matter
• figurative something regarded as enveloping a situation with an air of gloom, heaviness, or fear
2. an ecclesiastical pallium; Heraldry a Y-shaped charge representing the front of an ecclesiastical pallium

pall2 - verb. [intrans.] become less appealing or interesting through familiarity

pallium

parrel -

profligacy -

riant -

risa -

seraglio -

tearpit -

tramper -

trent-sevem waterway -

volante -

wagonette -

worldling -

wry -

ataraxia - noun. a state of serene calmness

Eloi - noun. The Eloi are one of the two post-human races in H.G. Well's 1895 novel The Time Machine.

sonoluminescence - noun. Physics. luminescence excited in a substance by the passage of sound waves through it.

botheration - noun. effort, worry, or difficulty; bother; 2. Exclamation. dated. used to express mild irritation or annoyance.

arthralgia - noun. Medicine. pain in a joint

lenitive - adjective. (of a medicine) laxative; noun. a medicine of this type

dolt - noun. a stupid person

colic - noun. severe, often fluctuating pain in the abdomen caused by intestinal gas or obstruction in the intestines and suffered esp. by babies

indolent - adjective. wanting to avoid activity or exertion; lazy 2. Medicine. (of a disease condition) causing little or no pain

myalgia - noun. pain in a muscle or group of muscles

paregoric - noun. a medicine consisting of opium flavored with camphor, aniseed, and benzoic acid, formerly used to treat diarrhea and coughing in children.

neuralgia - noun. intense, typically intermittent pain along the course of a nerve, esp. in the head or face

throes - plural noun. intense or violent pain and struggle, esp. accompanying birth, death, or great change.

metralgia -

pleurodynia - Bornholm disease or epidemic pleurodynia or epidemic myalgia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie B virus or other viruses.

It is named after the Danish island Bornholm where early cases occurred.

antalgic -

causalgia -

codeine -

empirin -

coxalgia -

hemialgia -

lumbago -

rectalgia -

dolorimetry -

gonalgia -

hypalgesia -

mastalgia -

melalgia -

meralgia -

myodynia -

nociceptive -

palliative -

phenacetin -

pleuralgia -

proctalgia -

protopathic -

psychalgia -

stang -

acetophenetidin -

aeroembolism -

algogenic -

aminopyrine -

chiralgia -

coelialgia -

costalgia -

datril -

interittent claudication -

nephralgia -

odynophibia -

panadol -

pedialgia -

podalgia -

pethidine -

pygalgia -

rend -

rhizotomy -

scelagia -

tabes dorsalis -

talalgia -

acetanilid -

acetphenetidin -

adenalgy -

agliophobia -

algetic -

amidopyrine -

anginal -

anginose -

caisson disease -

cardiacle -

cardialgia -

cephalalgia -

colchine -

coronary thrombosis -

crick -

darvon -

delenifical -

dolor -

dolorifical -

dorsodynia -

dysmenorrhea -

enteralgia -

fulgurating -

gehenna -

glossalgia -

glossodynia -

gyp -

hyperaesthesia -

lancinate -

melagra -

notal -

notalgia -

otalgia -

otalgy -

penance -

phantom limb -

photalgia -

photophobia -



bes -

macarism -

nikhedonia -

oblectation -

slattern -

confelicity -

epicaricacy -

gladsome -

scopolagnia -

algedonica -

algophilia -

bawd -

caroche -

carpetmonger -

cocotte -

cyprian -

deduit -

demimondaine -

disport -

ese -

franion -

herber -

lechery -

renifleur -

pedalo -

quodlibetarian -

regale -

strikhedonia -

swingle -

tootle -

venery -

volupty -

wet blanket -

winsome -

epicurean -

gad -

preterist -

abnegate -

algedonic -

epicurus -

irredeemable -

luxuriate -

utilitarianism -

surrey -

sybarite -


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •


Uncommon Awesome Easy-to-Use Words & Linguistics


acumen - noun. the ability to make good judgements and quick decisions, typically in a particular domain ORIGIN: late 16th cent. : from Latin, ' sharpness, point.'

deicide - verb. destruction or killing of a god

prater - verb. [intrans.] talk foolishly or tediously about

hassock - noun. an ottoman; a rank tuft of coarse grass or sedge, as in a bog.

taw - verb. to prepare skins by soaking, salting, stretching and paring without tannin, esp. with alum and salt; noun. a large marble

ursicide - the killing or killer of a bear

verbicide - destroying the meaning of a word

vulpicide - the killing of a fox

yen - noun. a longing or yearning

kir - noun. drink of black currant syrup and white wine

kef - noun. state of dreamy or drug-induced repose

fie - noun. expression of disgust or disapproval

fub - verb. to put off

gad - verb. to wander about idly or in pursuit of pleasure

eft - noun. again; afterwards; also. newt

eke - noun. in addition; also; likewise

ere - article. before

dit - noun. poem; words of a song

mel - noun. honey

jow - verb. to ring a bell; a stroke of a bell

mow - verb. to make a grimace

ret - verb. to expose to moisture; to soak; to soften by soaking


Types of Speech and Types of Killing


altiloquence - pompous or high speech

anteloquy - speaking against some idea; contradicting or gainsaying

breviloquence - short-windedness; tendency towards brevity in speech

blandiloquence - complimentary speech or flattery

doctiloquent - speaking learnedly

dulciloquent - speaking sweetly

falsiloquence - deceitful speech

ineloquence - unappealing speech

longiloquence - long-winded speech

parciloquy - laconic speech

pauciloquent - of a few words; speaking a little

pectoriloquy - sound of a patient's voice through stethoscope

tardiloquent - speaking slowly

tristiloquy - mournful speech

amicidel - verb. the desire to murder a friend

avicidel - verb. the desire to kill birds

bovicide - noun. the slaughter of cattle

femicide - killing of a woman

fillicide - killing of one's own child

floricide - killing of flowers

fratricide - killing of one's brother

giganticide - killing of a giant

gynaecide - killing of women

liberticide - destruction of liberty

lupicide - the killing of a wolf

menticide - the reduction of mind by psychological pressure

neomaticide - the killing or killer of a newborn/neonatal infant

senicide - the killing of old men

regicide - the killing of a monarch

serpenticide - the killing of a snake

sororicide - the killing of one's own sister

urbicide - destruction of a city

utricide - one who stabs an inflated skin vessel instead of killing someone

uxoricide - the killing of one's own wife

vaticide - the killing or killer of a prophet

viricide - killing of viruses

-

scop - noun. poet. An Old English poet, the Anglo-Saxon counterpart of the Old Norse skald. Wrote mostly epic poetry.

poetaster - noun. a person who writes inferior poetry

alcaeus - noun. A Greek poet. He invented the lyric meter alcaic.

thanatopsis - an essay expressing a view on the subject of death

monody - noun. an ode sung by a single actor in a greek tragedy; a poem lamenting a person's death

telestich - noun. a poem in which the last letters of successive lines form a word, phrase, or consecutive letters of the alphabet.

eclogue - noun. a short poem, esp. a pastoral dialogue

desiderata - noun. something that is needed or wanted.

threnody - noun. a lament; dirge, elegy.

lapidate - verb. stone; to kill by throwing stones at




Uncommon 3-Letter Words


tot - noun. bone or other object retrieved from garbage pile

tow - noun. bundle of untwisted natural fibers

tye - noun. inclined trough for washing ore

ure - use; custom

vis - adjective. force; power

yeo - noun. stream or drain used in mining

zek - noun. a Russian slang term for a prison inmate

zho - noun. Zoology. a cross between a yak and a cow

zug - noun. a waterproof leather used for boots

vug - noun. a small cavity within rock

wen - noun. an enormously congested city

wis - verb. to know, to believe

wyn - an old English rune having value 'w'

yad - noun. rod used by readers of the Torah as a pointer for following text

yag - noun. a synthetic diamond made of yttrium aluminum garnet

yam - noun. a posting house alongside a road

yaw - verb. to move unsteadily side-to-side

yex - verb. to hiccup, belch, or spit

yew - verb. to rise as a layer of froth in a boiling liquid

yok - a pejorative Jewish term for a non-Jew

pug - noun. ground clay mixed with water

ria - noun. normal drowned valley; long wide creek

roc - noun. enormous legendary Arabian bird

rya - noun. colorful Scandinavian knotted-pile rug

sal - noun. salt

saw - noun. a saying or proverb

say - noun. delicate woolen fabric

sic - adverb. thus

suq - noun. a Middle Eastern marketplace

pyx - noun. box or vessel in which coins or consecrated Eucharist are kept

qat - noun. leaves chewed or brewed in tea as a stimulant

qua - adjective. in the capacity of

ras - noun. headland

rep - noun. plain-woven fabric with crosswise ribs

puy - noun. Geology. a small volcanic cone

nim - verb. to steal; to pilfer

ord - noun. point of a weapon; a beginning

ort - noun. a scrap of food; morsel

kit - noun. a small pocket violin

kop - noun. bank of terracing at a football field

lac - noun. dark red transparent resin used to make shellac

lar - noun. local god of house

lev - noun. monetary unit of Bulgaria

ley - noun. mystical straight line between features of a landscape

neb - noun. Scottish & Northern English. a projecting part of something, in particular a nose or snout, a bird's beak or bill, the brim of a cap

aby - verb. to make amends; atone; pay a penalty

alt - noun. a small island in a lake or river

ama - noun. a Japanese pearl diver

ana - noun. in equal qualities

ard - verb. plough used to scratch top surface of soil

cwm - noun. valley or glen

cirque - noun. Geology. a half-open steep-sided hollow at the head of a valley or on a mountainside, formed by glacial erosion; poetic & literary. a ring, circlet, or circle ORIGIN: late 17th cent. from Latin circus

corrie - noun. a cirque, esp. one in the mountains of Scotland ORIGIN: mid 16th cent. : from Scottish Gaelic and Irish coire 'cauldron, hollow'

dol - noun. Medicine. unit for measuring pain

dop - noun. copper cup used to hold a diamond while cutting it

eth -  noun. Grammar. old English letter for voiced 'th' sound

fid - noun. conical wood pin used to splice strands of rope

gar - noun. a mild oath

fug - adjective. hot; close; smoky state of atmosphere

gat - noun. opening or strait between two sandbanks

hoc - noun. card game now obsolete

hod - noun. v-shaped trough for carrying bricks or mortars on the shoulders

hoy - noun. large one-decked boat

ife - noun. Botany. tropical African fibrous plant

iff - noun. if and only if

ivi - noun. Botany. Tahitian chestnut tree

jib - noun. small triangular sail extending from the head of the foremast

jud - noun. mass of coal ready for final removal

jug - noun. sound of the nightingale

jus - noun. law; legal right

ked - noun. Zoology. wingless fly that feeds on livestock

kep - verb. to catch an approaching object or falling liquid

kex - noun. dry, hollow plant stalk

kif - noun. drug like Marijuana smoked in North Africa
-
lea - arable land left fallow or used for pasture

arable - adjective. (of land) used or suitable for growing crops; noun. land or crops of this type. ORIGIN: late Middle English : from Old French, or from Latin arabilis, from arare 'to plow.'

fallow - adjective. (of farmland) plowed or harrowed but left unsown for a period in order to restore its fertility as part of a crop rotation or to avoid surplus production; also. a pale brown or reddish yellow color

blastogenesis - verb. reproduction by budding

cariogenic - verb. causing dental cavities

diplogenesis - verb. doubling of ordinarily single organ or part

anogenic - noun. formed from below or beneath

gelogenic - adjective. tending to produce laughter

electrogenesis - verb. production of electricity

nubigenous - cloud born

nepheligenous - causing smoke in clouds

noegenesis - production of knowledge

thymogenic - due to emotion


Wave Words, Snow, and Colors 8/9-8/31


niveous - adjective. poetic/literary. snowy or resembling snow. ORIGIN: Latin knives (from nix, niv- 'snow')

neige - noun. French. snow

tenesmus - noun. Pathology. an ineffective painful straining to empty the bowels in response to the sensation of a desire to defecate, without producing a significant quantity of feces.

verglas - noun. a thin coating of ice or frozen rain on an exposed surface

runnel - noun. a narrow channel in the ground for liquid to flow through, a brook or rill

rivulet - noun. a very small stream

freshet - noun. the flood of a river from heavy rain or melted snow, a rush of fresh water flowing into the sea

bourn - noun. dialect. a small stream, esp. one that flows intermittently or seasonally

attrit - verb. wear down (an opponent or enemy) by sustained action. his defense was meant to attrit us.

regelate - verb. technical. (chiefly of pieces of ice thawed apart) freeze together again.

besnow - verb. to scatter like snow; to cover thick, as with snow flakes.

unsullied - adjective. not stained or tarnished. spotlessly clean and fresh. the unsullied snow of mountains.

nival - adjective. of, relating to, or characteristic of a region of perpetual snow.

hoarfrost - adjective. a grayish-white crystalline deposit of frozen water vapor formed in clear still weather on vegetation, fences, etc.

rime - noun. frost formed on cold objects by the rapid freezing of water vapor in cloud or fog.

verb. cover (an object) with hoarfrost : he does not brush away the hoarfrost that rimes his beard.

polynya - noun. a stretch of open water surrounded by ice

hydrophyte - noun. a plant that grows only in water.

hard rime: white ice that forms when water droplets in fog freeze on the outer surfaces of objects, such as trees.

soft rime: feathery and milky in appearance.

hypolimnion - noun. the lower layer of water in a stratified lake, typically cooler than the water above and relatively stagnant

thermocline - noun. a steep temperature gradient in a body of water such as a lake, marked by a layer above and below which the water is at different temperatures

epilimnion - noun. the upper layer of water in a stratified lake

seiche - noun. a temporary disturbance or oscillation in the water level of a lake or partially enclosed body of water, esp. one caused by changes in atmospheric pressure

coniston - in Cumbria, England is the third largest lake in the English Lake district. It is five miles long, half a mile wide, with a maximum depth of 184 feet and covers an area of if 1.89 square miles. The lake has an elevation of 143 feet above see level, and drains to the sea via the River Crake.

crake - noun. a bird of the rail family, esp. one with a short bill like the corn crake; the rasping cry of the corn crake

demersal - adjective. (typically of fish) living close to the floor of the sea or lake. often contrasted with pelagic.

hamlet - noun. a small settlement, generally smaller than a village.

ouananiche - noun. Canadian. a salmon of the landlocked populations living in lakes in Labrador and Newfoundland

tantalus - noun. chiefly British. a stand in which decanters of liquor can be locked up though still visible 2. Greek Mythology. a Lydian king, son of Zeus and father of Pelops. As punishment for his crimes (which included killing Pelops), he was forced to remain in chin-deep water with fruit-laden branches over his head, both of which receded when he reached for them. His name is the origin of the word tantalize.

limonite - noun. an amorphous brownish, secondary mineral consisting of a mixture of hydrous ferric oxides, important as iron ore.

limnetic  zone - noun. the well-lit, open surface waters in a lake, away from the shore. The vegetation of the littoral zone surrounds this expanse of open water and it is above the profundal zone. This is the main photosynthetic body of the lake. This zone produces the oxygen and food that support the lake's consumers.

profundal zone - noun. the profundal zone is a deep zone of an inland body of freestanding water, such as a lake or pond, located below the range of effective light penetration. This is typically below the thermocline, the vertical zone in the water through which temperature drops rapidly.The lack of light in the profundal zone determines the type of biological community that can live in this region which is distinctly different from the community in the overlying waters. The profundal zone is part of the aphotic zone.

aphotic zone - noun. From Greek, lit. "without light," is the portion of lake or ocean where there is little or no sunlight. It is formally defined as the depths beyond which less than 1% of sunlight penetrates. Consequently, bioluminescence is essentially the only light found in this zone. Most food comes from dead organisms sinking to the bottom of the lake or ocean from overlying waters. The depth of the aphotic zone can be greatly affected by such things as turbidity and the season of the year. The aphotic zone underlies the photic zone, which is that portion of the lake or ocean directly affected by sunlight.

photic zone - Greek for "well lit," or sunlight zone is the depth of the water in a lake or ocean that is exposed to sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis to occur. It extends from the surface down to a depth where light intensity falls to one percent of that at the surface, called the euphotic depth. Accordingly, its thickness depends on the extent of light attenuation in the water column. Typical euphotic depths vary from only a few centimeters in highly turbid eutrophic lakes, to around 200 meters in the open ocean. It also varies with seasonal changes in turbidity. Since the photic zone is where almost all of the primary productivity occurs, the depth of the photic zone is generally proportional to the level of primary productivity that occurs in that area of the ocean. About 90% of all marine life lives in the photic zone. A small amount of primary production is generated deep in the abyssal zone around the hydrothermal vents which exist along some mid-oceanic ridges.

benthic - noun. Ecology. the flora and fauna found on the bottom, or in the bottom sediments of a sea, lake, or other body of water.

turbidity - adjective. (of a liquid) cloudy, opaque, or thick with suspended matter.

eyre - noun. historical. a circuit court held in medieval England by a judge (a justice in eyre) who rode from county to county for that purpose.

nekton -

lasher -

noria -

lough -

seine -

ijsselmeer -

fen -

onondaga -

lecanomancy -

wampee -

neritic zone -

spindrift -

groundswell -

wave son -

spoon drift -

over rake -

breakwater -

broach -

kymatology -

coseismal -

lido -

euphotic -

polder -

dropwort -

subaqueous -

ling -

mere -

misdirect -

ponding -

millpond -

horsepond -

croak -

lochan -

nursepond -

piscary -

plashnet -

soal -

spatterdock -

spike-rush -

sump -

piddle -

hidrosis -

brine -

clepsydra -

aspersorium -

vichy water -

carabao -

dowser -

narghile -

water caltrop -

affusion -

blanch -

jesuit's nut -

ling ko -

phreatic -

anhydrous -

calcimine -

lecanomancy -

lentic -

epilimnion -

bletonism -

vadose -

stagnicolous -

headrace -

formalin -

evapotranspiration -

ewer -

cryptocorene -

krasis -

natant -

nenuphar -

offing -

pistia -

plimsoil -

riparian -

sparge -

velamen -

yanquapin -

casein -

catechu -

Bilajer -

echard -

elydoric -

gallinule -

grilse -

catabolism - noun. Biology. the breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones, together with the release of energy; destructive metabolism.

hyrdromel -

ice lolly -

intertidal - adjective. Ecology. of or denoting the area of seashore that is covered at high tide and uncovered at low tide

intumesce - verb. Rare. swell up

intussusception - noun. Medicine. the inversion of one portion of the intestine within another 2. Botany. the growth of a cell wall by the deposition of cellulose.

deamination - noun. Biochemistry. the removal of an amino group from an amino acid or other compound.

kaolin - noun. a fine, soft white clay, resulting from the natural decomposition of other clays or feldspar. It is used for making porcelain and china, as a filler in paper and textiles, and in medicinal absorbents. Also called China Clay.

hadal - adjective. of or relating to the zone of the sea greater than approximately 20,000 feet(6,000 m) in depth (chiefly oceanic trenches) ORIGIN: mid 20th cent.: from HADES + -AL

hadhramaut -

Kuroshio -

mola - noun. another term for sunfish ORIGIN: late 16th cent.: from Latin literally 'millstone,' with reference to the shape.

neptune -

The Archipelago of the Azores -

greenling - noun. a spiny-finned, edible fish of the North Pacific

padang - noun. a seaport in Indonesia, the largest city on the west coast of Sumatra; pop. 481,000

cofferdam - noun. a watertight enclosure pumped dry to permit construction work below the waterline, as when building bridges or repairing a ship

alga - noun. a simple nonflowering plant of a large group that includes the seaweeds and many single-celled forms. Algae contain chlorophyll but lack true stems, roots, leaves, and vascular tissue; DERIVATIVES: algal: adjective. ORIGIN: mid 16th cent.: from Latin, "seaweed."

accretion - noun. the process of growth or increase, typically by the gradual accumulation of additional layers or matter 2. Astronomy. the coming together and cohesion of matter under the influence of gravitation to form larger bodies.

Waveski - Waveski Surfing is a dynamic sport combining the paddle power of a sit on and strap in kayak with the maneuverability and performance of a surfboard. A Waveski resembles a larger surfboard, with a seat, fins, foot straps, and seat belt, enabling the rider to 'eskimo roll' if overturned. The waveski rider or waveski surfer then uses a double ended paddle for motion while seated on the waveski. The origins are obscure, but wave skis have been around for over forty years. Danny Broadhurst, a Long Island, New York, surfer created some early wave skis in the 1970s, although these were heavy, bulky and not particularly maneuverable. The sport experienced its major growth in the 80's with manufactures like Macski being a dominant force in the market exporting worldwide to countries like Australia, USA, and Europe. Original boards had wooden frames covered in glass fiber then became foam injected and soon custom hand made boards were being shaped and glassed out of Polystyrene foam and epoxy resins. Nowadays boards are shaped in precision CNC machines and weigh around 6 kg when completed.

photogrammetry -

eagre - noun. dialect term for BORE3

embillow -

bore - noun. a steep-fronted wave caused by the meeting of two tides or by the constriction of a tide rushing up a narrow estuary. ORIGIN: early 17th cent.: perhaps from Old Norse bara 'wave' ; the term was used in the general sense [billow, wave] in Middle English.

tyramine - noun. Biochemistry. a compound that occurs naturally in cheese and other foods and can cause dangerously high blood pressure in people taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor; An amine related to tyrosine; chem. formula: C 6 H 4 (OH)CH 2 CH 2 NH 2.

levodopa - noun. Biochemistry. also L-dopa. the levorotatory form of dopa, used to treat Parkinson's disease.

levorotatory - adjective. Chemistry. (of a compound) having the property of rotating the plane of a polarized light ray to the left, i.e. counterclockwise facing the oncoming radiation. The opposite of dextrorotatory.

dextrorotatory - adjective. Chemistry. (of a compound) having the property of rotating the plane of a polarized light ray to the right, i.e., clockwise facing the oncoming radiation.

dopa - noun. Biochemistry. a compound that is present in nervous tissue as a precursor of dopamine, used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.; An amino acid; alternative name: dihydroxyphenylalanine; chem. formula: C 9 H 11 NO 4.

catecholamines - noun. Biochemistry. any of a class of aromatic amines that includes a number of neurotransmitters such as epinephrine and dopamine.

aromatic - adjective. having a pleasant and distinctive smell 2. Chemistry.

cytoplasmic -

vesicular monoamine transporter -

adrenergic nerve terminals -

decarboxylated -

tyrosine -

coston lights -

guidon - noun. a pennant that narrows to a point or fork at the free end, esp. one used as the standard of a light cavalry regiment

klatch - noun. a social gathering, esp. for coffee and conversation ORIGIN: mid 20th cent.L from German Klatsch 'gossip.'

thelodonti -

Cometicerus - noun. Zoology. is an extinct genus of thelodonti which lived in Canada during the Early Devonian period. It is only known from its caudal fin and parts of its dorsal surface, including its dorsal fin. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Thelodonti (Unranked) Furcacaudiformes

Chordate -

deuterostomes animals -

notochord -

pharyngeal -

endostyle -

Tunicata -

salps - noun. a free-swimming marine invertebrate related to the sea squirts with a transparent, barrel-shaped body

sea squirts - noun. a marine tunicate that has a baglike body with orifices through which water flows into and out of a central pharynx

Cephalochordata -

lancelets

acorn worms -

osteichthyes -

Xenoturbellida -

atriopore -

pharynx -

oral cirri -

metapleural fold -

hepatic caccum -

Craniata -

neural arches -

molecular phylogenetics -

entropneusts -

pterobranchs -

graptolites -

crinoids -

protostomes -

deuterostomes -

Kimbrella -

Chengjiang fauna -

Yunnanozoon -

Haikouella lanceolata -

Haikouichthys -

myllokunmingia -

clade -

cladogram -

Linnaean taxonomy -

agnatha paraphyletic -

Myxini -

Petromyzontida -

Hyperoartia -

Conodonta -

Pteraspidomorphi -

Anaspids -

Cephalaspid

kenning - noun. a compound expression in Old English and Old Norse poetry with metaphorical meaning, e.g., oar-steed = ship.

aegir - (Old Norse "sea") is a sea giant, god of the ocean and king of the sea creatures in Norse mythology. He is also known for hosting elaborate parties for the gods. AEgir's servants are Fimafeng(killed by Loki) and Eldir.

Euripus - noun. Zoology. Euripus is a genus of butterflies in the family Nymphalidae. The three species in the genus are native to South and Southeast Asia.

electroencephalography - noun. the measurement of electrical activity in different parts of the brain and the recording of such activity as a visual trace (on paper or on an oscilloscope screen.)

Paphos - noun. also known as Pafos, is a coastal city in the southwest of Cyprus  and the capital of the Paphos District. In antiquity, two locations were called Paphos: Old Paphos and New Paphos. The currently inhabited city is New Paphos. It lies on the Mediterranean coast, about 31.07 miles west of the Limassol(the biggest port in island), which has an A6 highway connection. Paphos International Airport is the country's second largest airport.

Near Palaepaphos(Old Paphos) at the seaside of Petra tou Romiou is the mythical birthplace of Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and beauty and the founding myth is interwoven with the goddess at every level, so that Old Paphos became the most famous and important place for worshipping Aphrodite in the ancient world. In Greco-Roman times Paphos was the island's capital, and it is famous for the remain of the Roman governor's palace, where extensive, fine mosaics are a major tourist attraction. The apostle Paul of Tarsus visited the town during the 1st century AD. The town of Paphos is included in the official UNESCO list of cultural and natural treasures of the world's heritage.

Paphos enjoys Subtropical-Mediterranean climate, with the mildest temperatures on the island. The typical summer's season lasts about 8 months, from April to November, although in March and December temperatures may also reach 68 ºF.

Paphos has been selected as the European Capital of Culture for 2017 along with Aarhus.

Aarhus - noun. is the second-largest city in Denmark. The principal port of Denmark, Aarhus is on the east side of the peninsula of Jutland in the geographical center of Denmark. Aarhus is the seat of the council of Aarhus municipality with 319,094 inhabitants and 256,018(Jan 2013) in the inner urban area. According to Aarhus municipality, the "Greater Aarhus" area has a population of about 1.25 million people. The city claims the unofficial title "Capital of Jutland."

Aarhus is the main and biggest city in the East Jutland metropolitan area, which is a co-operation in eastern Jutland with 17 municipalities. With more than 1.2 million people living in the East Jutland metropolitan area it represents approximately 23% of the population of Denmark. Aarus has the second largest urban area in Denmark after Copenhagen.

squall - noun. a sudden violent gust of wind or a localized storm, esp. one bringing rain, snow, or sleet; a loud cry 2. verb. (of a baby or small child) cry noisily and continuously

abaca - noun. a large herbaceous Philippine plant of the banana family that yields Manila hemp ORIGIN: mid 18th cent.: via Spanish from Tagalog abaka.

Etruscan - adjective. of or relating to ancient Etruria, its people, or their language. The Etruscan civilization was at its height c. 500 BC and was an important influence on the Romans, who subdued the Etruscans by the end of the 3rd century BC. 2. noun. a native of ancient Etruria. 2. noun. the language of ancient Etruria, of unknown affinity, written in an alphabet derived from Greek.

Safaitic dialect - noun. is the name given to an Old North Arabian dialect, preserved in the form of inscriptions which are written in a type of South Semitic script. These inscriptions were written by bedouin and semi-nomadic inhabitants of the Syro-Arabian desert. Dating of the inscriptions, although problematic, is conventionally placed between the 1st century BC and the 4th century AD.

Athenian Agora - The Ancient Agora of Classical Athens (aka Forum of Athens) is the best known example of an ancient  Greek agora, located to the northwest of the Acropolis and bounded on the south by the hill of the Areopagus and on the west by the hill known as the Kolonus Agoraios, also called Market Hill.

uncial - adjective. of or written in a majuscule script with rounded unjoined letters that is found in European manuscripts of the 4th-8th centuries and from which modern capital letters are derived 2. adjective. rare. of or relating to an inch or an ounce 3. noun. unofficial. an uncial letter or script ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: from Latin uncialis, from uncia 'inch.' Sense 1 is in the late Latin sense of unciales litterae 'uncial letters,' the original application of which is unclear.

denarius - noun. an ancient Roman silver coin, originally worth ten asses; a unit of weight equal to that of a silver denarius; an ancient Roman gold coin worth 25 silver denarii.

Fayum alphabet - noun. the Fayum alphabet is an Ancient Greek abecedary inscribed on four copper plates, purportedly from Fayum, Egypt. It may preserve the earliest form of the Greek alphabet. It is the only known Greek abecedary which ends in the letter tau(T), as does the ancestral Phoenician alphabet; all other Greek abecedaries have at least the addition of non-Phoenician upsilon (Y).

abecedarium - noun. an abecedarium or abecedary is an inscription consisting of the letters of an alphabet, almost always listed in order. Typically abecedaria (or abecedaries) are practice exercises.

abecedarian - adjective. arranged alphabetically 2. adjective. rudimentary; elementary 3. noun. a person who is just learning; a novice


Sylvanite - noun. silver gold

hoar - adjective. poetic/literary. grayish white: gray or gray-haired with age

barite - noun. a mineral consisting of barium sulfate, typically ocurring as colorless prismatic crystals or thin white flakes

cruse - noun. archaic. an earthenware pot or jar

albicant - whitish; becoming white

albugineous - like the white of an eye or an egg; white colored

argent - the heraldic color silver or white

heraldry - noun. the system by which coats of arms and other armorial bearings are devised, described, and regulated. All the pomp and heraldry provided a splendid pageant.

gramercy - noun. interjection. archaic. used as an exclamation expressing surprise or sudden strong feeling; thanks

beholden - adjective. obligated; indebted

donativum - the name given to the gifts of money dispersed to the soldiers of the Roman legions or to the Praetorian Guard by the Roman Emperors

aurulent - gold colored

celadon - noun. a willow-green color, as adjective. paneling painted in celadon green. ORIGIN: mid 18th cent.: from French celadon, a color named after the hero in d'Urfe's pastoral romance L'Astree(1607-27)

cinerious - ashen; ash-grey

columbine - of or like a dove ORIGIN: from French Columbine, from Italian colombina, from feminine of colombino 'dovelike', from colombo 'dove'

cretaceous - of or resembling chalk; of a whitish color ORIGIN: 17th cent.: from Latin cretaceus, from creta, 'chalk'

eburnean - adjective. made of, or relating to ivory

frostbow - noun. a white arc or circle in the sky attending frosty weather and formed by reflection of sunlight from ice crystals floating in the air

griseous - pearl-grey or blue-grey; grizzled

leucochroic - adjective. anthropology. having a light-colored skin or abnormally light, in color; albinotic

analcime - weak, a white, grey, or colourless tectosilicate mineral, tetragonal

Marl - noun. an unconsolidated sedimentary rock or soil consisting of clay and lime, formerly used typically as fertilizer. verb. [trans.] marled. apply marl to. ORIGIN: Middle English: from Old French marl, from medieval Latin margila, from Latin marga, of Celtic origin.

podsol - noun. Soil Science. an infertile acidic soil having an ash-like subsurface layer)from which minerals have been leached) and a lower dark stratum, occurring typically under temperate coniferous woodland.

galumph - verb. informal. move in a clumsy, ponderous, or noisy manner. ORIGIN: 1871 (in the sense [prance in triumph] ): coined by Lewis Carroll in Through the Looking Glass: perhaps a blend of GALLOP and TRIUMPH.

begrime - verb. blacken with ingrained dirt

ambiguphobia - noun. a fear of being misunderstood

amomaxiaphobia - noun. the fear of making love in an automobile

bemire - verb. archaic. cover or stain with mud ORIGIN: 16th cent.: from BE-(expressing transivity) + mire

colly - verb. British. 1. to blacken as with coal dust; begrime. 2. noun. grime;soot. ORIGIN: 1555-65; variant of collow(v.), Middle English colwen, derivative of Old English col or coal

collow - noun. soot; smut.

gudgeon - noun. a small, edible, European freshwater fish(Gobio gobio) of the minnow family, often used as fishing bait 2. A pivot or spindle on which a bell or other object swings or rotates

hyaloid - adjective. glassy; transparent

hyaline - adjective. having a glassy, translucent appearance. noun. a thing that is clear and translucent like glass, esp. a smooth sea or a clear sky




Eye Words

hyperopia - noun. farsightedness

lagophthalmus - noun. the inability to close the eyelids completely

iridocyclitis - noun. inflammation of the iris and ciliary body of the eye.

keratoconus - noun. abnormal cone-shaped protrusion of the cornea of the eye; can be treated by epikeratophakia

epikeratophakia - noun. Medical. the surgical correction of aphakia. It is a refractive surgical procedure in which a donor cornea is transplanted to the anterior surface of the patient's cornea. A lamellar disc from a donor cornea is placed over the de-epithelialized host cornea and sutured into a prepared groove on the host cornea. Indications include aphakia and refractive errors which cannot be corrected with conservative methods.

epithelialize - verb. cover or become covered with epithelial tissue, e.g. during the healing of a wound.

aphakia - noun. the absence of the lens of the eye, due to surgical removal, a perforating wound or ulcer, or congenital anomaly. It causes loss of accommodation, far sightedness(hyperopia), and a deep anterior chamber. Complications include detachment of the vitreous humour or retina, and glaucoma.

vitreous humour - noun. the clear gel that fills the space between the lens and the retina of the eyeball of humans and other vertebrates. It is often referred to as the vitreous body or simple "the vitreous." ORIGIN: Late Middle English : from Latin vitreus (from vitrum 'glass') + -OUS

cicatrisation - verb. (with reference to a wound) heal by scar formation ORIGIN: late Middle English : from Old French cicatriser, from cicatrice 'scar'

monoblepsia - noun. a defect of the eyesight in which vision is best when only one eye is open; blindness to all colors but one

diplontic - noun. genetics. (of an alga or other lower plant) having a life cycle in which the main form, except for the gametes, is diploid.

diploid - adjective. (of a cell or nucleus) containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.

ploidy - noun. genetics. the number of sets of chromosomes in a cell, or in the cells of an organism

polity - noun. a form or process of civil government or constitution; an organized society; a state as a political entity

beauty - a combination of qualities, such as shape, color, or form, that pleases the aesthetic senses, esp. the sight; a combination of qualities that pleases the intellect or moral sense; denoting something intended to make a woman more attractive; a beautiful or pleasing thing or person, in particular: a beautiful woman, an excellent specimen or example of something(the beauties of) the pleasing or attractive qualities or features of something ORIGIN: Middle English : from Old French beaute , based on Latin bellus 'beautiful, fine'

ommatophore - noun. Zoology. a part of an invertebrate animal, esp. a stalk or tentacle, that bears an eye ORIGIN: late 19th cent.: from Greek omma, ommat-'eye' + -PHORE

histopathology - noun. the study of changes in tissues caused by disease ORIGIN : Greek, from histos 'tissue', pathos 'disease-suffering', and -logia. Scientifically histopathology refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease. Specifically, in clinical medicine, histopathology refers to the examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist, after the specimen has been processed and histological sections have been placed onto glass slides. In contrast, cytopathology examines free cells or tissue fragments

cytopathology - noun. Medicine. The study and diagnosis of diseases on the cellular level. The discipline was founded by Rudolf Virchow in 1858. It's common application is used in the Pap smear, thyroid lesions, diseases involving sterile body cavities(peritoneal, pleural, and cerebrospinal), and a wide range of other body sites. ORIGIN: Greek from kytos 'a hollow', pathos 'fate, harm'

peritoneum - noun. Medicine. the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or the coelom - it covers most of the intra-abdominal (or coelomic) organs - in amniotes and some invertebrates(annelids, for instance). It is composed of a layer of mesothelium supported by a thin layer of connective tissue. The peritoneum both supports the abdominal organs and serves as a conduit for their blood and lymph vessels and nerves.

serous membrane - noun. Medicine. the smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells, which secrete serous fluid, and a thin epithelial layer. Serous membranes line and enclose several body cavities, know as serous cavities, where they secrete a lubricating fluid which reduces friction from muscle movement. Serosa is not to be confused with adventitia, a connective tissue layer which binds together structures rather than reducing friction between them.

adventitia - noun. Medicine. the outermost connective tissue covering of any organ, vessel, or structure. It is also called the tunica adventitia or the tunica externa.

coelom - noun. Medicine. the fluid cavity formed within the mesoderm of some animals. Coeloms developed in diploblasts but were subsequently lost in several lineages. Loss of coelom is correlated with reductions in body size. Coelom is sometimes, though incorrectly) used to refer to any developed digestive tract. Some organisms may not possess a coelom or may have a false coelom. Animals who have coelom are called coelomates.

diploblasts - noun. Medicine. a condition of the blastula in which there are two primary germ layers; the ectoderm(outer skin) and endoderm(gut). Diploblastic organisms are organisms which develop from such a blastula, and include cnidaria and ctenophora.

blastula -

annelid - noun. Zoology. a large phylum that comprises the segmented worms, which include earthworms, lugworms, and leeches ORIGIN: modern Latin, from French(animaux) anneles 'ringed(animals)', from Old French anel 'a ring,' from Latin anellus, diminutive of 'a ring.'

cnidaria - noun. Zoology. (with a silent C) also Coelenterata is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic and mostly marine environments. Their distinguishing feature is cnidocytes, specialized cells that they use mainly for capturing prey. Their bodies consist of mesoglea, a non-living jelly-like substance, sandwiched between two layers of epithelium that are mostly one cell thick.

cnidocytes - noun. Scientific. an explosive cell containing one giant secretory organelle or cnida(plural cnidae) that defines the phylum Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydrae, jellyfish, etc.). Cnidae are used for prey capture and defense from predators. Despite being morphologically simple, lacking a skeleton and usually being sessile, cnidarians prey on fish and crustaceans. A cnidocyte fires a structure that contains toxin, from a characteristic sub-cellular organelle called a cnidocyst (also known as a cnida or nematocyst). This is responsible for the stings delivered from jellyfish.

sessile - noun. Zoology. Sessility is a characteristic of some animals, such that they are not able to move about. Sessile animals are usually permanently attached to a solid substrate of some kind, such as a part of a plant a dead tree trunk, or a rock. For example, barnacles attach themselves to the hull of a ship, but corals lay down their own substrate. Sessile animals typically have a motile phase in their development.

motile - noun. Biology. the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process. Most animals are motile but the term applies to unicellular and simple multicellular organisms, as well as to some mechanisms of fluid flow in multicellular organs, in addition to animal locomotion. Motile marine animals are commonly called free-swimming.

substrate - noun. Biology. the surface on which a plant or animal lives. A substrate can include biotic or abiotic materials and animals.

mesoglea - noun. Biology. a translucent, jelly-like substance found between the two epithelial cell layers in the bodies of coelenterates. The mesoglea is mostly in water. Other than water, the mesoglea is composed of several substances including fibrous proteins like collagen and heparan sulphate proteoglycans. The mesoglea is mostly acellular, but in both cnidaria and ctenophora the mesoglea contains muscle bundles and nerve fibers. Other nerve and muscle cells lie just under the epithelial layers.

heparan sulphate - noun. Biology. a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues. It occurs as a proteoglycan(HSPG) in which two or three HS chains are attached in close proximity to cell surface or extracellular matrix proteins.

proteoglycan - noun. Biology. Proteins that are heavily glycosylated. The basic proteoglycan unit consists of a "core protein" with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan(GAG) chain(s). The point of attachment is a Ser residue to which the glycosaminoglycan is joined through a tetrasaccharide bridge (For example: chondroitin sulfate-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-PROTEIN). The Ser residue is generally in the sequence -Ser-Gly-X-Gly- (where X can be any amino acid residue), although not every protein with this sequence has an attached glycosaminoglycan. The chains are long, linear carbohydrate polymers that are negatively charged under physiological conditions, due to the occurrence of sulfate and uronic acid groups. Proteoglycans occur in the connective tissue.

covalent bond - noun. Biology. The chemical bond that involves the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms. The stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms when they share electrons is known as covalent bonding

glycosylation - noun. Biology. the reaction in which a carbohydrate is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule(a glycosyl acceptor). In Biology glycosylation refers to the enzymatic process that attaches glycans to protein lipids, or other organic molecules. This enzymatic process produces one of the fundamental biopolymers found in cells (along with DNA, RNA, and proteins). Glycosylation is a form of cotranslational and post-translational modification. Glycans serve a variety of structural and functional roles in membrane and secreted proteins. The majority of proteins synthesized in the rough ER undergo glycosylation. It is an enzyme-directed site-specific process, as opposed to the non-enzymatic chemical reaction of glycation. Glycosylation is also present in the cytoplasm and nucleus as the O-GlcNAc modification. Five classes of glycans are produced:

• N-linked glycans attached to a nitrogen of asparagine or arginine side-chains. N-linked glycosylation requires participation of a special lipid called dolichol phosphate

• O-linked glycans attached to the hydroxy oxygen of serine, threonine, tyrosine, hydroxylysine, or hydroxyproline side-chains, or to oxygens on lipids such as ceramide

• phospho-glycans linked through the phosphate of a phospho-serine;

• C-linked glycans, a rare form of glycosylation where a sugar is added to a carbon on a tryptophan side-chain

• glypiation, which is the addition of a GPI anchor that links proteins to lipids through glycan linkages

cotranslational and post-translational modification -

mesothelium - noun. Anatomy. the epithelium that lines the pleurae, peritoneum, and pericardium. Embryology. the surface layer of the embryonic mesoderm, from which this is derived. ORIGIN: late 19th cent.: from MESO- 'middle'

glycans - noun. Biology. a polysacchride or oligosaccharide. Glycans usually consist of O-glycosidic linkages of monosaccharides. For example, cellulose is a glycan(or to be more specific, a glucan) composed ß-1, 4-liked D-glucose, and chitin is a glycan composed of ß-1, 4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Glycans can be homo- or heteropolymers of monosaccharide residues, and can be linear or branched. Glycan may also be used to refer to the carbohydrate portion of a glycoconjugate, such as a glyco-'protein', glyco-'lipid', or a 'proteo'-glycan.

glycosaminoglycan(GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides - are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating unit (except for keratan) consists of an amino sugar (N-acetylglucose amine or N-acetylgalactose amine) along with a uronic sugar (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or galactose.

keratin - noun. a fibrous protein forming the main structural constituent of hair, feathers, hoofs, claws, horns, etc. ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: from Greek keras, kerat- 'horn'

galactose - noun. Chemistry. a sugar of the hexose class that is a constituent of lactose and many polysaccharides. ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: from Greek gala, galakt 'milk'

mucocutaneous leishmaniasis - noun. Medicine. A disease caused by protozoan parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by the bite of certain species of sand fly(sub family Phlebotominae). Although the majority of the literature mentions only one genus transmitting Leishmania to humans(Lutzomyia) in America, a 2003 study by Galati suggested a new classification for American sandflies, elevating several subgenera to the genus level. Elsewhere in the world, the genus Phlebotomus is considered the vector of leishmaniasis.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is a severe form in which the parasites migrate to the vital organs.

mucopolysaccharides -

iduronic acid -

polysacchride - noun. Chemistry. Long carbohydrate molecules of repeated monomer units joined together by glycosidic bonds. They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks. They may have amorphous or even insoluble in water.

oligosaccharide - noun. Biochemistry. a carbohydrate whose molecules are composed of a relatively small number of monosaccharide units.

monosaccharide - noun. Chemistry. any of the class of sugars(e.g. glucose) that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar

cytoplasm - noun. Biology. the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus

saccharide - noun. Biochemistry. any of the class of soluble, crystalline, typically sweet-tasting carbohydrates found in living tissues and exemplified by glucose and sucrose

chondroitin sulfate - noun. Biology. a sulfated glycosaminoglycan(GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars(N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid) It is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycan. A chondroitin chain can have over 100 individual sugars, each of which can be sulfated in variable positions and quantities. Chondroitin sulfate is an important structural component of cartilage and provides much of its resistant compression. Along with glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate has become a widely used dietary supplement for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

hydroxylysine - noun. Biochemistry. an amino acid with the molecular formula C6H14N2O3. It was first discovered in 1921 by Donald Van Syke as the 5-Hydroxylysine form. It arises from a post-translational hydroxy modification of lysine. It is most widely known as a component of collagen.

hydroxyproline - noun. Biochemistry.(2S,4R)-4-Hydroxyproline is a common non-proteingenic amino acid, abbreviated as HYP, e.g., in Protein Data Bank. It is produced by the amino acid proline by the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase following protein synthesis(as a post-translational modification). The enzyme catalyzed reaction takes place n the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Although it is not directly incorporated into proteins, hydroxyproline comprises roughly 4% of all amino acids found in animal tissue, an amount greater than seven other amino acids that are translationally incorporated.

serine - noun. Biochemistry. Abbreviated Ser. is an amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2)OH. It is one of the proteingenic amino acids. Its codons in the genetic code are UCU, UCC, UCA, UCG, AGU and AGC. By virtue of the hydroxyl group, serine is classified as a polar amino acid

threonine - noun. Biochemistry. Abbreviated Thr or T. is an a-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH(OH)CH3. Its codons are ACU, ACA, ACC, and ACG. This essential amino acid is classified as polar. Together with serine, threonine is one of two proteingenic amino acids bearing an alcohol group(tyrosine is not an alcohol but a phenol, since its hydroxyl group is bonded directly to an aromatic ring, giving it different acid/base and oxidative properties). It is also one of two common amino acids that bear a chiral side chain, along with isoleucine.

isoleucine - noun. Biochemistry. a hydrophobic amino acid that is a constituent of most proteins. It is an essential nutrient in the diet of vertebrates.

chiral - adjective. Chemistry. asymmetric in such a way that the structure and its mirror image are not superimposable. Chiral compounds are typically optically active; large organic molecules often have one or more chiral centers where four different groups are attached to a carbon atom ORIGIN: late 19th cent.: from Greek kheir 'hand'

tyrosine - noun. Chemistry. a hydrophilic amino acid that is a constituent of most proteins and is important in the synthesis of some hormones.

ceramide -

glypiation -

phospho-serine -

chondroitin sulfate -

cerebrospinal - adjective. Anatomy. of or relating to the brain and spine

uronic acid - noun. Biology. A class of sugar acids with both carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups. They are sugars in which the terminal carbon's hydroxyl group has been oxidized to a carboxylic acid. Oxidation of the terminal aldehyde instead yields an aldonic acid, while oxidation of both the terminal hydroxyl group and the aldehyde yields aldaric acid. The names of uronic acids are generally based on their parent sugars, however some of the most common do not have direct parents, and formed by epimerization (e.g. iduronic acid is an epimer of glucuronic acid). Uronic acids that have six carbons are called hexuronic acids.

amniote - noun. Zoology. A group of tetrapods(four-limbed animals with backbones or spinal columns) that have an egg equipped with an amnios, an adaption to lay eggs on land rather than in water as anamniotes do. They include synapsids (mammals along with their extinct kin) and sauropsids (reptiles and birds), as well as their fossil ancestors.

hexuronic - noun. a Uronic acid that includes six carbons.

epimerization -

epithelium -

pleural - noun. each pair of serous membranes lining the thorax and enveloping the lungs in humans and other mammals; a lateral part in an animal body or structure. ORIGIN: late Middle English : via medieval Latin from Greek, literally 'side of the body, rib.'

peritoneum - noun. Anatomy. the serous membrane lining the cavity of the abdomen and covering abdominal organs. ORIGIN: late Middle English: via late Latin from Greek peritonaion, from peritonos 'stretched around,' from peri- 'around' + -tonos 'stretched.'

ctenophora - noun. Zoology. commonly known as 'comb jellies' or 'crane flies.' are a phylum of animals that live in marine waters worldwide. ORIGIN: from Greek kteis 'comb' and phero ' carry'

numinous - adjective. having a strong religious or spiritual quality; indicating or suggesting the presence of divinity ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: from Latin numen, numin- 'divine power'

aonb(AONB) - An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty is an area of countryside considered to have significant landscape value in England, Wales, and Greater Britain.

pepi ii neferkare - Pepi II (reigned c. 2278 BC - c. 2184 BC) was a pharaoh of the Sixth dynasty in Egypt's Old Kingdom. His throne name, King Neferkare.

cepheus - noun. Astronomy. a constellation near the north celestial pole ORIGIN: from the name of a king of Ethiopia, the husband of Cassiopeia

vamoose - verb. to run

devenustate - noun. obsolete. to deprive of beauty or comeliness.

callisteia - noun. Greek Mythology. A festival or perhaps merely a part of one, held by the women of Lesbos

cosmesis - noun. Medicine. the preservation, restoration, or bestowing of bodily beauty. Usually by surgical correction.

kalology - noun. the study of aesthetics

resplendence - adjective. attractive and impressive through being richly colorful or sumptuous ORIGIN: late Middle English : from Latin resplendent- 'shining out' from re- 'expressing intense force + splendere 'to glitter'

cogent - adjective. (of an argument or a case) clear, logical, and convincing. ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: from Latin cogent- 'compelling,' from the verb cogere, from co- 'together' + agere 'drive'

tourmaline - noun. Geology. a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors. The name come from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka.

wolframite - noun. Geology. (Fe,Mn)WO4, is an iron, manganese tungstate mineral that is the intermediate between ferberite (Fe2+ rich) and huebernite (Mn2+ rich). Along with scheelite, the wolframite series are the most important tungsten ore minerals. Wolframite is found in quartz veins and pegmatites associated with granitic intrusives. Associated minerals include cassiterite, scheelite, bismuth, quartz, pyrite, galena, sphalite, and arsenopyrite.

ferberite -

huebernite -

sphalite -

galena -

arsenopyrite -

bilberry - noun. Botany. is any of several species of low-growing shrubs in the genus Vaccinium bearing edible berries. The species most often referred to is Vaccinium myrtillus (blueberries)

cassock - noun. a full-length garment of a single color worn by certain Christian clergy, members of church choirs, acolytes, and others having some particular office or role in a church

capulin - noun. Botany. a species of Cherry, found in Mexico and Columbia it is also called, cerezo, detse, detze, taunday, jonote, puan, palman, or xengua.

guillemot - noun. Zoology. the common name for several species of seabird in the auk family.

paradoxical sleep - see REM sleep.

Defensive immobilization: the precursor of dreams

According to Tsoukalas (2012) REM sleep is an evolutionary transformation of a well-known defensive mechanism, the tonic immobility reflex. This reflex, also known as animal hypnosis or death feigning, functions as the last line of defense against an attacking predator and consists of the total immobilization of the animal: the animal appears dead(cf."playing possum"). The neurophysiology and phenomenology of this reaction shows striking similarities to REM sleep, a fact which betrays a deep evolutionary kinship. For example, both reactions exhibit brainstem control, paralysis, sympathetic activation, and controlled hypothermia. This theory integrates many earlier findings into a unified, and evolutionary well informed, framework.

Yet another theory suggests that monoamine shutdown is required so that the monoamine receptors in the brain can recover to regain full sensitivity. Indeed, if REM sleep is repeatedly interrupted, the person will compensate for it with longer REM slee, "rebound sleep", at the next opportunity.

It has been suggested that acute REM sleep deprivation can improve certain types of depression when depression appears to be related to an imbalance of certain neurotransmitters. Although sleep deprivation in general annoys most of the population, it has repeatedly been shown to alleviate depression, albeit temporarily. More than half the individuals who experience this relief report it to be rendered ineffective after sleeping the following night. Thus, researchers have devised methods such as altering the sleep schedule for a span of days following a REM deprivation period and combining sleep-schedule alterations with pharmacotherapy to prolong this effect. Though most antidepressants selectively inhibit REM sleep due to their action on monoamines, this effect decreases after long-term use. It is interesting to not that REM sleep deprivation stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis much the same as anti-depressants.

hippocampal - noun. the hippocampal is located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. The hippocampus is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates. It belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation. Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain. The hippocampus is part of the cerebral cortex, and in primates it is located in the medial temporal lobe, underneath the cortical surface. It contains two main interlocking parts: Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus.

Apparent Death

Apparent death, colloquially known as playing dead or playing possum, is a behavior observed in a wide range of animals in which they take on the appearance of being dead to an observer. This could either be an involuntary reflex action, as in tonic immobility; or an adaptive behavior as in thanatosis, in which is used both as a defense mechanism and as a form of aggressive mimicry.

monoamine - noun. Chemistry. a compound having a single amine group in its molecule, esp. one that is a neurotransmitter (e.g. serotonin, norepinephrine).

dentate gyrus - noun. a part of the hippocampal formation. It is thought to contribute to the formation of new memories, among other functions.

pterygium - noun. Biology. refers to any winglike triangular membrane occurring in the neck, eyes, knees, elbows, ankles, or digits. ORIGIN: from Greek pterygion 'wing'

jabberwock - noun. nonsense, gibberish

jabot - Lace frill worn on a shirt of on the front of a dress

jacent - adjective. lying flat; sluggish

jacinth - noun. a reddish-orange gem variety of zircon ORIGIN: Middle English : from Old French iacinte or medieval Latin iacinthus, alteration of Latin hyacinthus or Hyacinth(flower)

merlin - noun. a small dark falcon that hunts small birds, found throughout most of Eurasia and much of North America

jack - noun. a medieval leather coat worn as armor

jacobin - noun. Politics. an extremist or radical in politics.

jaconet - noun. a lightweight cotton cloth with a smooth and slightly stiff finish

jacquard - noun. an apparatus with perforated cards, fitted to a loom to facilitate the weaving of figured and brocaded fabrics

jactancy - adjective. boastfulness; vainglory

jacitation - noun. a tossing, twitching, or jerking of the body; a false claim

jactation - noun. throwing or boasting

jaculation - the act of throwing or hurling

jaculiferous - adjective. having arrow-like prickles

jambiya - noun. a curved dagger with two edges

janitrix - noun. a female janitor

jade - noun. a pitiful horse; nag

jaggery - noun. coarse and dark sugar

jalouse - verb. to suspect; to be jealous of

jebel - noun. Geography. a hill or mountain

jaspe - noun. cotton or rayon cloth with a shaded effect

jawhole - noun. a cesspool or sewer entrance

jargonelle - noun. an early pear

jejunator - noun. one who fasts

jaunce - verb. to prance; to cause a horse to prance

jasperated - adjective. mottled; streaked with various colors

jactigation - noun. wagging; tremulous movement

jargoon - adjective. brilliant pale or colorless zircon

jazzetry - noun. poetry read to jazz accompaniment

jecoral - adjective. of, like, or pertaining to the liver

jellygraph - noun. an old device for copying that used a plate of jelly

jemadar - an Indian police or customs officer

jennet - noun. a small Spanish horse

jeofall - noun. official or legal acknowledgment of a mistake

jeremiad - noun. prolonged complaint; angry or cautionary harangue; lamentation

jess - noun. a ringed strap tied to the leg of a falcon or hawk

jetavator - control surface for deflecting rocket exhaust

jibboom - noun. spar forming an extension of the bowspit

jeton - noun. stamped metal token used in card-playing or reckoning accounts

jettatura - noun. the evil eye

jibe - verb. to change a ship's course to make the bow switch sides

jigamaree - a thingamajig; a cunning manoeuvre

jiggumbob - a thingamabob; a gadget; a whatsit; a gewgaw

gewgaws - noun. a showy thing, esp. one that is useless or worthless

jimswinger - noun. a frock coat

jink - verb. to move quickly with several turns or kinks

jinker - noun. a light horse drawn passenger carriage

jitney - noun. a small passenger vehicles

jobation - tedious scolding

jobbernowl - a blockish or stupid head

spinthariscope - noun. Physics. an instrument that shows the incidence of alpha particles by flashes on a fluorescent screen

anaxiphillia - noun. the act of falling in love with the wrong person.

anadipsia - noun. excessive thirst

ligneous - adjective. made, consisting of, or resembling wood; woody ORIGIN: 17th cent. from Latin ligneous 'relating to wood'

lignite - noun. a soft, brownish-black coal in which the alteration of vegetable matter has proceeded further than in peat but not as far as in bituminous coal. Also called brown coal. Also: lignitic

sabicu - noun. the wood of the sabicu which resembles mahogany. 2. small genus of tropical American trees and shrubs with pinnate leaves and flat straight pods

calambou - noun. A species of agalloch, or aloes wood, of a dusky or mottled color, of a light, friable texture, and less fragrant than calambac -- used by cabinet makers.

agalloch - noun. the fragrant, resinous wood of an East Indian tree, Aquilaria agallocha, used as incense in the Orient.

mottle - verb.(used with object) to mark or diversify with spots or blotches of a different color or shade.

noun. a diversifying spot or blotch of color, mottled coloring or pattern ORIGIN: 1350-1400; Middle English; mote. mote ORIGIN: before 1000; Middle English, Old English mot speck; cognate with Dutch mot, grit, sawdust, Norwegian mutt speck

friable - adjective. easily crumbled; frail, brittle

rasp - verb. to file or scrape, with a coarse file having sharp projections. to grate on(nerves or feelings)

quoin - noun. 1: an exterior angle of a wall or other piece of masonry. 2. any of the stones used in forming such an angle, often being of large size and dressed or arranged so as to form a decorative contrast with the adjoining wall. 3. A keystone. 4. Printing. a wedge-shaped bloke used to lock type in a chase

badigeon - noun. [French] A cement or paste (as of plaster and freestone, or a of sawdust and glue or lime) used by sculptors, builders, and workers

automysophobia - noun. a fear of being dirty, unclean, or smelling bad ORIGIN: auto 'self, one's own' + Greek mysos 'dirt'

augean - adjective. resembling the Augean stables in filthiness or degradation. 2. difficult and unpleasant. ORIGIN: 1590-1600; < Latin auge (us) of Augeas  (Geek Augei (as) + -us adj. suffix

sully - verb. poetic/literary or ironic. damage the purity of integrity of; defile. ORIGIN: late 16th cent.: perhaps from French souiller 'to soil.'

frowzy - adjective. (aslo frowsy.frowzier. frowziest) scruffy and neglected in appearance. ORIGIN: late 17th.

slovenly - adjective. (esp. of a person or their appearance) messy and dirty. (esp. of a person or action) careless; excessively casual

trollop - noun. dated or humorous. a woman perceived as sexually disreputable or promiscuous. ORIGIN 17th cent.: perhaps related to TRULL.

trull - noun. archaic. prostitute.

slattern - noun. a slovenly, untidy woman or girl 2. a slut; harlot.

borborygmus - noun. (pl. -mi) technical. a rumbling noise or gurgling noise made by the movement of fluid and gas in the intestines.

bruckle - verb. chiefly Scottish. easily broken or crumbled

daglock - noun. a dirty or matted lock of fur, hair, or wool

eschrolalia - noun. 1. meaningless repetition of another person's spoken words as a symptom of a psychiatric disorder. 2. Repetition of speech by a child learning to talk.

Fouque - noun. Friedrich Heinrich Karl, Baron de la Motte. 1777-1843, German romantic writer; author of Undine 1811

fique - noun. a natural fibre that grows in the leaves of the fique plant, Furcraeae andina, a xerophytic monocot native to the Andes.

froe - noun. frow

frow - noun. a cleaving tool having a wedge-shaped blade, with a handle set at right angles to it, also froe. ORIGIN: 1615-25; earlier frower, perhaps a noun use of froward in literal sense "turned away.

froward - adjective. willfully contrary; not easily managed ORIGIN: 1150-1200; Middle English froward, fraward.

grotty - adjective. slang. apparently not akin to grody

cruft - noun. an unpleasant substance. superfluous junk; excess

halvans - noun. Mining. impure ore; dirty ore.

manky - adjective. worthless, rotten, or in bad taste; filthy or bad ORIGIN: from Italian manacare 'to be lacking.'

mussy - adjective. untidy, messy, or rumpled ORIGIN: 1855-60, Americanism; muss+ y

muxy - adjective. soft; sticky, and dirty

peasouper - noun. pea soup. 2. informal. fog; pea soup fog.

reechy - adjective. smoky or sooty

slovenly - adjective. untidy or unclean in appearance or habits

sloven - noun. a person who is habitually negligent of neatness or cleanliness in dress, appearance, etc.

smoterlich - adjective. dirty foul

sump - noun. a pit, well, or the like in which water or other liquid is collected. 2. chiefly Brit. a swamp, bog, or muddy pool.

crankcase - noun. (in an internal-combustion engine) the housing that encloses the crankshaft, connecting rods, and allied parts.

tatterdemalion - noun. a person in tattered clothing; a shabby person. adjective. ragged; unkempt or dilapidated.

tidemark - noun. the point that something or someone has reached, receded below, or risen above.

bedaub - verb. (used with object) to smear all over; besmear; soil. 2. to ornament gaudily or excessively. ORIGIN: 1545-55; be- + daub 'to cover or coat with soft, adhesive matter, as plaster or mud'; to smear, apply, to daub something. verb (used with object)

hovel - noun. a small, very humble dwelling house; a wretched hut. 2. any dirty, disorganized dwelling 3. an open shed, as for sheltering cattle or boots

scut work - noun. informal. menial, routine work, as that done by an underling

scut - noun. a short tail, especially that of a hare, rabbit, or deer. 2. slang. a worthless, contemptible person.

boiler suit - noun. coveralls

chafeweed - noun. a weedy, composite plant, Gnaphalium sylvaticum, of the North Temperate Zone, having wooly foliage and numerous, dirty-white flowerheads in leafy spike.

clarty - adjective. dirty; esp. covered in mud

coom - noun. chiefly Scot. and North England. soot; coal dust; smut. variant of culm. 2. grease from bearings, axles, etc.

drabble (-ed, -ing) - verb. make or become wet and dirty

guttersnipe - noun. a person belonging to or characteristic of the lowest social group in a city; a street urchin

maculate - adjective. spotted; stained. archaic: defiled; impure ORIGIN: 1375-1425; late Middle English < Latin maculatus (past participle of maculare to spot, stain.

miry - adjective. of the nature of the mire; swampy. covered or bespattered with mire.

mysophilia - noun. Psychiatry. a pathological attraction to dirt or filth.

plica - noun. zoology, anatomy. a fold or folding.

qdos - operating system. Quick DOS. quick and dirty operating system.

saur - a combining form used in the names of extinct reptiles, especially archosaurs, usually Anglicized forms of Latin taxonomic names: dinosaur, pterosaur.

scutcheon - noun. zoology. a scute

omorashi - a Japanese fetish subculture, in which participants experience sexual arousal from having a full bladder or a sexual attraction to someone else experiencing the feeling of a full urinary bladder.

scute - noun. zoology. a large scale; a dermal bony plate, as on an armadillo, or a large horny plate, as on a turtle.

ellinikon international airport - was the International Airport of Athens Greece for 60 years.

cabal - noun. a small group of secret plotters, as against a government or person in authority.

tetrad -  noun. a group of four; the number 4.

bevy - noun. a group of birds, as larks or quail, or animals, as roebuck, in close association

panicle - noun. Botany. any loose, diversely branching flower cluster

fascicle - noun. a section of a book or set of books being published in installments as separate pamphlets or volumes; a small bundle, tight cluster, or the like 2. anatomy. a small bundle of nerve or muscle fibers.

grapeshot - noun. a cluster of small cast-iron balls formerly used as a charge for a cannon.

raceme - noun. Botany. a simple indeterminate inflorescence in which the flowers are borne on short pedicels lying along a common axis, as in the lily of the valley. ORIGIN: 1775-85; Latin racemus 'cluster of grapes, bunch of berries.'

anthotaxy - noun. Botany. the arrangement of flowers on a stem or parts of a flower.

asterism - noun. astronomy. a group of stars, a constellation; three asterisks in a triforce printed to draw attention to a passage it precedes

girandole - noun. a rotating and radiating firework; an ornate bracket for candelabra or the like, sometimes with a reflecting mirror at the back of the shelf 3. a brooch or earring consisting of a central ornament with usually three smaller ornaments hanging from it.

glomerule - noun. Botany. a cyme condensed into a head-like cluster.

cyme - noun. an inflorescence in which the primary axis bears a single central or terminal flower that blooms first.

bract - noun. Botany. a specialized leaf or leaflike part, usually situated at the base of a flower or inflorescence.

botryoid - adjective. Mineralogy. having the form of a bunch of grapes.

hyades - noun. astronomy. (used with a plural verb) 1. a group of stars comprising a moving cluster in the constellation Taurus, supposed by the ancients to indicate the approach of rain when they rose with the sun. 2. Classical Mythology. a group of nymphs and sisters of the Pleiades who nurtured the infant Dionysus and were placed among the stars as a reward.

pinaster  - noun. a species of pyramid-shaped pine tree, growing in southern Europe and having clustered needles.

swad - noun. a bunch; a thick bramble of plants

tussock - noun. a tuft of growing grass or the like

asterope - noun. Astronomy. a double star in the Pleiades (21K and 22L Pleiadum, of the 5.8 and 6.4 magnitude respectively), appearing as a single star of the 5.3 magnitude to the naked eye

floret - noun. a smaller flower.

guar - noun. a plant, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, of the legume family, grown as a forage crop and for its seeds, which produce a gum(guar gum) used as thickening agent and stabilizer in foods and pharmaceuticals and as sizing for paper and cloth.

moly - noun. an herb given to Odysseus by Hermes to counteract the spells of Circe.

molybdenum - noun. Chemistry. a silver-white metallic element, used as an alloy with iron in making hard, high-speed cutting tools. Symbol: Mo; atomic weight 95.94; atomic number 42; specific gravity: 10.2

uvelloid - noun. resembling a cluster of grapes

whorl - noun. a circular arrangement of like parts, as leaves or flowers, around a point on an axis; vertical.

umbel - noun. Botany. an inflorescence in which a number of flower stalks or pedicels, nearly equal to the length, spread from a common center.

corymb - noun. Botany. a flower cluster whose lower stalks are proportionally longer so that the flowers form a flat or slightly convex head.

aciniform - adjective. clustered like grapes.

peduncle - noun. Botany. a flower stalk, supporting either a cluster or a solitary flower. the stalk bearing the fruiting body. fungi

aldebaran - noun. Astronomy. the brightest star in the constellation Taurus. It is a binary system of which the main star is a red giant. ORIGIN: Arabic, 'the follower (of the Pleiades)"

loess - noun. Geology. a loosely compacted yellowish-gray deposit of windblown sediment of which extensive deposits occur.

pruinose - adjective. Botany. (of a surface, such as that of a grape) covered with white powdery granules; frosted in appearance. ORIGIN: early 19th cent. : from Latin pruinosus, from pruina 'hoarfrost'.

lampblack - noun. a pigment made from soot

briquet - noun. a block of compressed charcoal or coal dust used as fuel

graywacke - noun. geology. a dark-gray coarse-grained wacke.

wacke - noun. a poorly sorted sandstone containing fragments of rock and minerals in a clayey matrix

hoary - adjective. grayish-white; old and trite

brindled - noun. a brownish or tawny color of animal fur, with streaks of other color; speckled, flecked, spotted, streaked.

blae - adjective. Scot and North England. bluish-black; blue-gray. ORIGIN: 1150-1200; Middle English (north) bla < Old Norse bla- blackish blue; blue.

fuscous - adjective. technical or poetic/literary. dark and somber in color.

cinereous - adjective. in the state of or reduced state of ashes; resembling ashes, ashen; ash-colored; grayish ORIGIN: 1655-65; < Latin cinereus, equivalent to ciner- 'stem of ashes' , ashes.

trona - noun. a gray mineral that occurs as an evaporite in salt deposits and consists of a hydrated carbonate and bicarbonate of sodium.

sot - noun. a habitual drunkard ORIGIN: late Old English sott [foolish person] , Latin sottus , reinforced by Old French sot 'foolish.' The current sense of the noun dates from the late 16th century.

stotious - adjective. Irish. drunk; inebriated

souse - verb. soak in or drench with liquid. informal. drunk.

nimptopsical - adjective. drunk.

rummy - noun. a card game; rum, as in rum drink.

squiffy - adjective. informal. chiefly Brit. slightly drunk.

crocked - adjective. informal. drunk.

maudlin - adjective. self-pitying or tearfully sentimental, often through drunkenness.

sorbile - adjective. to suck in, to drink down. Fit to be drunk or sipped.

dipsomaniac - noun. alcoholism, specifically, in a form characterized by intermittent bouts of craving for alcohol. ORIGIN: Greek, dipso 'thirst' + maniac 'mania'

tiddly - adjective. slightly drunk.

besotted - adjective. strongly infatuated. archaic. intoxicated; drunk.

fuddle - verb. archaic. go drinking on a bout;  confuse or stupefy(someone) esp. with alcohol

half seas over - adjective. chiefly Brit. informal or dated. fairly drunk.

slew - verb. (of a vehicle or person) turn or slide violently or uncontrollably in a particular direction 2. noun. a violent or uncontrollable sliding movement.

bacchic - adjective. [lowercase] riotously or jovially intoxicated; drunken OR  of, pertaining to, or honoring Bacchus

carouse - verb. drink plentiful amounts of alcohol and enjoy oneself with others in a noisy, lively way.

fap - adjective or noun. Late 16th cent. drunk

fou - adjective. Scottish. drunk.

oenophilia - noun. a person who enjoys wines, usually as a connoisseur

tipple -  verb. to drink intoxicating liquor, especially habitually or to some excess; intoxicating liquor.

hidrosis - noun. Medicine. sweating ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: from Greek hidr0sis, from hidros 'sweat'

sudor - noun. sweat. ORIGIN: late 16th cent.: Latin sudorifer, 'sweat'

diaphoresis - noun. technical. sweating especially to an unusual degree as a symptom of disease or a side effect of a drug ORIGIN: via late Latin from Greek from diaphorein 'carry off, sweat out,' from dia 'through' + phorein 'carry'

drudgery - noun. hard, menial, or dull work: domestic drudgery

swither - noun. a shunting engine. 2. a device used to select or combine different video and audio signals.

travail - noun. painful or laborious effort. verb. engage in painful or laborious effort.

sudoriferous - adjective. (of a gland) secreting sweat.

sudorific - adjective. relating to or causing sweating

bromidrosis - noun. the bacterial breakdown of sweat and cellular debris resulting in a foul odor. ORIGIN: Greek bromos 'stench', hidros 'sweat'

syringadenous - adjective. of or relating to sweat glands

exocrine gland - an exocrine gland is distinguished by the fact that it excretes its essential products by way of a duct to some environmental external to itself, be it either inside the body or on a surface of the body. Examples include: sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, pancreas, and liver.

osmidrosis - noun. body odor.

salient - adjective. 1. most noticeable or important. prominent; conspicuous.1. [postpositive] Heraldry. (of an animal) standing on its hind legs with the forepaws raised, as if leaping.

heraldry - noun. the system by which the coats of arms and other armorial bearings are devised, described, and regulated.

pruritic - noun. Medicine. severe itching of the skin, as a symptom of various ailments.

detrition - noun. rare. the action of wearing away by friction

muck sweat - noun. informal. a state of perspiring profusely.

sudatorium - in architecture, a sudatorium is a vaulted sweating room, of the Roman baths or thermae. The Roman architectural writer Vitruvius refers to it as a concamerata sudatio.

sudatory - noun. a sauna

sudorous - adjective. sweating.

supererogation - noun. the performance of more work than duty requires

swate - noun. sweat

swatte - noun. sweat

xeroderma - noun. excessive or abnormal dryness of the skin, as in ichthyosis.

ichthyosis - noun. a congenital, often hereditary skin disease marked by dry, thickened, scaly skin.

miliaria - noun. heat rash

gaum - noun. to stare vacantly or handle in a clumsy matter

sudarium - noun. another word for sudatorium or sweat lodge; sauna.

diaphoretic - adjective. producing or increasing perspiration

eccrine - Merocrine. is a term used to classify exocrine glands and their secretions in the study of histology. A cell is classified as merocrine if the secretions of that cell are excreted via exocytosis from a secretory cells into an epithelial-walled duct of ducts and thence onto a bodily surface or into the lumen.

hydrophobia - noun. extreme or irrational fear of water, esp. as a symptom of rabies in humans. 2. Rabies in humans.
forswat - adjective. spent with heat; covered with sweat.

lysozyme - noun. an enzyme that catalyzes the destruction of the cell walls of certain bacteria, occurring notably in tears and egg whites.

muramidase - a lysozme. an enzyme found in saliva and sweat and tears that destroys the cell walls of certain bacteria.

osmidrosiphobia - noun. a feat of body odour

popanoic acid - a liquid fatty acid found in milk and sweat and in fuel distillates.

propionic acid - noun. a colorless pungent liquid organic acid. C2H5COOH, produced in some forms of fermentation and used for inhibiting.

stumer - something bogus or fraudulent.

copal - is a name given to tree resin that is particularly identified with the aromatic resins used by the cultures of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica as ceremonially burned incense and other purposes. More generally, the term copal describes resinous substances in an intermediate stage of polymerization and hardening between "gummier" resins and amber. The word copal is derived from the Nahauatl language word copalli, meaning 'incense.'

sluice - from the Dutch word 'sluis' is a water channel controlled at its head by a gate. A Millrace, leet, flume, penstock or lade is a sluice channeling water toward a water mill. The terms sluice, sluice gate, knife gate, and slide gate are used interchangeably in the water and wastewater control industry.

flume - a man made channel for water

leet - noun. historical. (in England) a yearly or half-yearly court of record that the lords of certain manors. the Jurisdiction of the court. 2. a manmade channel for water

penstock - a gate or intake structure that controls water flow.

lade - verb. archaic. load(a ship or other vessel); ship(goods) or cargo) intrans. take on cargo ORIGIN: Old English hladan, of the West Germanic origin; related to Dutch and German laden 'to load', also Ladle and perhaps Lathe

bilge - noun. the area on the outer surface of a ship's hull where the bottom verb. archaic. break a hole in the bilge of a ship ORIGIN: 15th cent. probably a variant of bulge.

catchment - noun. the action of collecting water, esp. the collection of rainfall over a drainage area

naiad - noun. in classical mythology. a water nymph. the aquatic larva

undine - noun. a female spirit or nymph inhabiting water

sudamen - noun. medicine. a skin disease in which sweat accumulates under the superficial horny layers of the epidermis to form small, clear, transparent vesicles.

transude - verb. an edematous fluid that collects in the body's cavities as a result of disturbances in the circulation of blood or in flow of lymph(such as ascites, or abdominal dropsy, in cases of cardiac insufficiency or cirrhosis of the liver)

edema(formerly known as dropsy) - is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, which are locations beneath the skin or in one or more cavities of the body. It is clinically shows as swelling. Generally, the amount of interstitial fluid is determined by the balance of fluid homeostasis, and increased secretion of fluid into the interstitium or impaired removal of this fluid may cause edema.

cirrhosis - is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrosis, scar tissue and regenerative nodules(lumps that occur as a result of a process in which the damaged tissue is regenerated, leading to a loss of liver function. Cirrhosis is most commonly caused by alcoholism, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, and fatty liver disease, but has many other possible causes. Some cases are idiopathic(i.e. of no cause).


prickly heat - noun. an itchy inflammation of the skin, typically with a rash of small vesicles, common in hot moist weather. Also called Miliaria

Miliaria rubra - proper noun. a heat rash, is a skin condition that appears to discrete extremely pruritic, erythematous papulovesicles  accompanied by a sensation of prickling, burning, or tingling. Differential diagnosis should be used to rule out polycythemia vera, which is a rare hematological disorder and appears more often in males than females, and generally not before the age of 40. Both disorders share the common denominator of appearing after taking a hot shower.

polycythemia vera (PV, PCV) - also known as erythremia primary polycythemia and polycythemia rubra vera is a myeloproliferative

myeloproliferative diseases(MPDs) or myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) - are a group of diseases of the bone marrow in which excess cells are produced. They are related to, and may evolve into, myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia, although the myeloproliferative diseases on the whole have a much better prognosis than these conditions. The concept of myeloproliferative disease was first proposed in 1951 by the eminent hematologist William Dameshek. In the most recent World Health Organization classification of Hematologic malignancies, this group of diseases was renamed from "myeloproliferative diseases" to "myeloproliferative neoplasms". This reflects the underlying clonal genetic changes that are a salient feature of this group of diseases.

erythematous - noun. Medicine. superficial reddening of the skin, usually in patches, as a result of injury or irritation causing dilatation of the blood capillaries ORIGIN: 18th cent.: from Greek eruthema, from eruthainein 'be red,' from eruthros 'red'

frontlet - noun. an ornamental piece of cloth hanging over the upper part of an altar frontal; dated. a decorative band or ornament worn on the forehead

metopic - noun. of or pertaining to the forehead

sinciput - noun. Anatomy. the front of the skull from the forehead to the crown

frisette - noun. a fringe of curled, often artificial hair.

linnet - noun. a mainly brown and gray finch with a reddish breast and forehead

bausond - noun. Zoology. having white spots on a black or bay background

bay - adjective. Zoology. of a horse, brown with black points

nasion - noun. Craniometry. the intersection of the internasal

forelock - noun. a lock of hair growing just above the forehad

kowtow - verb. historical. to kneel and touch the ground with the forehead in worship or submission as part of Chinese custom.

phylactery - noun. a small leather box containing Hebrew texts on vellum, worn by Jewish men at morning prayer as a reminder to keep the law.

capuchin - noun. a friar belonging to a branch of the Franciscan order that observes a strict rule drawn up in 1529; a cloak and hood formerly worn by women; A South American monkey with a cap of hair on the head that has the appearance of a cowl; also, a pigeon of a breed with head and neck feathers resembling a cowl

crinion - noun. point where the hairline meets the midpoint of the forehead.

cymbiform - adjective. boat-shaped; describing pollen with a single linear pore

glabella - noun. the smooth part of the forehead above and between the eyebrows

lour - verb. lower; set lower

cosmocracy - noun. rule of the whole world

uranology - the branch of physics that studies celestial bodies and the universe as a whole

panentheism - noun. the belief that the world is a part of God.

omega particle - noun. a subatomic particle in the baryon family having a mass 3,272 times that of the electron, containing neither up nor down quarks.

pancosmism  - noun. a belief that nothing exists beyond the material universe.

pancosmic - adjective. pertaining to pancosmism, or to the universe in its entirety.

pancratic - adjective. athletic; pertaining to or having ability in all matters.

pandiculation - noun. stretching and yawning

pangram - noun. a sentence containing all 26 letters of the alphabet.

pangrammatist - noun. a person that composes sentences using all 26 letters of the alphabet.

panorpid - noun. scorpion fly

pantoglot - noun. a speaker of all languages

pantomorphic - adjective. taking on all shapes

paracoita - noun. a female sexual partner

paracoitus - noun. a male sexual partner

a corps perdu - phrase. 'with lost body'; impetuously, in desperation

a fond - phrase. 'to the bottom'; thoroughly

a mensa et thoro - phrase. 'from table to bed'; applied to judicial separation of husband and wife

a outrance - phrase. 'to the utmost'; to the death

ab initio - phrase. from the beginning; from the very start or outset

ab irato - phrase. from an angry man: hence, not to be taken too seriously

abderian - adjective. pertaining to foolish or excessive laughter

ablutomania - noun. a mania for washing oneself

acalculia - noun. the inability to work with numbers

acephalist - noun. the balky maverick who acknowledges no head or superior authority

abscission - noun. botany. the natural detachment of parts of a plant, typically dead leaves and ripe fruit.: any act of cutting off. ORIGIN: early 17th cent.: from Latin abscissio(n-), from abscindere, from ab- 'off, away' + scindere 'to cut.'

acarpous - adjective. botany. not yielding fruit

accismus - noun. rhetorical device of pretending to refuse

accolent - adjective. neighboring

accubation - noun. act or state of reclining at a table

aceldama - noun. field or scene of bloodshed

acerose - adjective. pertaining to the needle

acervate - adjective. botany. growing in heaps or clusters

acerous - adjective. without horns or antennae

acescent - adjective. becoming, or tending to be, sour

acherontic - adjective. dark, gloomy, forbidding

acholous - adjective. lacking bile

achor - noun. medicine. archaic. eruption on the scalp

acronychal - adjective. occurring at nightfall

achroous - adjective. colorless

acidulous - adjective. sharp or sour in taste or manner, acidulate.

acor - noun. medicine. stomach acidity

acouasm - noun. a ringing sound in the head

acraein - noun. foul-tasting butterfly's juice

acrasy - noun. anarchy, disorder

acratia - noun. impotence

acroatic - adjective. pertaining to profound knowledge

acrolith - noun. a statue with a wooden trunk and stone head and extremities.

acrophony - noun. The use of a word starting with a letter of the alphabet the same as the name of the letter.

acushla - noun. term of address: darling.

acyrology - noun. incorrect diction

ad captandum - phrase. 'to capture' the affection or suit the taste (of the crowd)

ad hunc vocem - phrase. 'to this word'

ad hunc locum - phrase. law. 'at this place'; on this passage

ad libitum - adj. 'at one's pleasure'; as much or long as desired

ad misericordiam - phrase. to compassion; appealing to a sense of pity or mercy; asking compassion

ad rem - phrase. pertinent to the matter

ad unguem - phrase. to the fingernail; with great precision

ad valorem - adjective. in proportion to value, especially of import duties of a percentage of the value of the imports

ad verbum - phrase. to the word: word for word; literally; verbatim

adaxial - on, beside, or turned towards, axis of an organ, organism, or plant.

adient - adjective. tending to expose an organism to, or turn it towards, a stimulus or situation

adipescent - adjective. becoming fatty

adipic - adjective. chemistry. pertaining to fatty or greasy substances

adipsy - noun. lack of thirst. quenching thirst

adit - noun. entrance, especially horizontal passage into a mine

adjectitious - adjective. added, thrown in

Pelagic zone - Any water in a sea or lake that is neither close to the bottom nor near the shore can be said to be in the pelagic zone. The word pelagic comes from the Ancient Greek pelages "open sea". The pelagic zone can be though of in terms of an imaginary cylinder or water column that goes from the surface of the sea almost to the bottom. Conditions change deeper down the water column; the pressure increases, the temperature drops and there is less light. Depending on the depth, the water column, rather like the Earth's atmosphere can be divided into different layers.

Depth and Layers

Depending on how deep the sea is, the pelagic zone can extend over up to five horizontal layers in the ocean. From top down, these are:

Epipelagic(sunlit) - From the surface  (MSL or mean sea level) down to around 200 m (650 ft) the illuminated zone at the surface of the sea where there is enough light for photosynthesis. Nearly all primary production in the ocean occurs here. Consequently plants and animals are largely concentrated in this zone.

Mesopelagic(twilight) - From 200 meters down to around 1,000 meters (3,300 ft). The name for this zone stems from the Ancient Greek: meson, "middle". Although some light penetrates this second later, it is insufficient for photosynthesis. At about 500 m the water also becomes depleted of oxygen. Still, life copes, with gills that are more efficient or by minimizing movement.

Bathypelagic(twilight)- From 1,000 m down to around 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The name stems from the Ancient Greek bathes, "deep". At this depth the ocean is pitch black, apart from occasional bioluminescent organisms, such as lanternfish. There is no living plant life. Most animals living here survive by consuming the detritus falling from the zones above, which is know as "marine snow", or like the marine hatchetfish, by preying on other inhabitants of this zone.

Abyssopelagic(lower midnight) - From 4,000 m down to above the ocean floor. The name is derived from the Ancient Greek: abysso, "bottomless" (a holdover from the times when the deep ocean, or abyss, was believed to be bottomless). Very few creatures are sufficiently adapted to surviving in the cold temperatures, high pressures, and complete darkness of this depth. Among the species found in this zone are several species of squid; echinoderms including the basket star, swimming cucumber, and the sea pig; and rain arthropods including the sea spider. Many of the species living at these depths have adapted to be transparent and eyeless as a result of the total lack of light in this zone.

Hadopelagic - The deep water in ocean trenches. The name is derived from the Ancient Greek: Haides, "Hades", the classical Greek underworld. This zone is mostly unknown, and very few species are known to live here (in the open areas). However, many organisms live in hydrothermal vents in this and other zones. Some define the hadopelagic as waters below 6,000 m (19,685 ft), whether in a trench or not. The bathypelagic, abyssopelagic, and hadopelagic zones are very similar in character, and some marine biologists combine them into a single zone or consider the latter two to be the same. The abyssal plain is covered with soft sludge composed of dead organisms from above.

benthos - noun. Ecology. the flora and fauna found on the bottom, or in the bottom sediments, of a sea, lake or other body of water. ORIGIN: late 19th cent: from Greek, 'depth of the sea'.

vitrify - verb. convert(something) into glass or a glasslike substance, typically by exposure to heat

flit - noun. the mixture of silica and fluxes that is fused at high temperatures to make glass.
- a similar calcined and pulverized mixture used to make soft-paste porcelain or ceramic glazes. make into fit.

fulgurite - noun. Geology material formed of sand or other sediment fused by lightning

Spanish broom - noun. a Mediterranean broom with fragrant yellow flowers and almost leafless stems that were formerly used in basketry.

rabbet - noun. a step-shaped recess cut along the edge or in the face of a piece of wood, typically forming a match to the edge or tongue of another piece. : [as adj.] a rabbet joint.

verb. (-bet-ed, -bet-ing) make a rabbet in, trans. join or fix (a piece of wood to another with a rabbet)

cullet - noun. recycled broken or waste glass used in glassmaking

vitrescent - adjective. capable of or susceptible to being turned into glass

carboy - noun. a large globular plastic bottle with a narrow neck, typically protected by a frame and used for holding acids or other corrosive liquids

devitrify - verb. (-fies, -fied) [intrans.]
(of glass or vitreous rock) become hard, opaque, and crystalline.
- [trans.] make hard, opaque, and crystalline

cheval-de-frise - noun. 1. a portable obstacle, consisting of a wooden frame covered with spikes or barbed wire, used by the military to close off a passage or block enemy advancement. 2. shards of glass or spikes set into masonry along the top of a wall

Geissler tube - noun. a sealed tube of glass or quartz with a central constriction, filled with vapor for the production of a luminous electrical discharge.

bugloss - noun. a bristly plant of the borage family, with bright blue flowers. Anchusa, Lycopsis, and other genera, family Boraginaceae: several species, including the small bugloss and the widespread viper's bugloss. ORIGIN: late Middle English : from Old French buglosse or Latin buglossus, from Greek bouglossos 'ox-tongued,' from bous 'ox' + glossa 'tongue'

perlite - noun. a form of obsidian characterized by spherulites formed by cracking for the volcanic glass during cooling, used as insulation or in plant growth media

calx - noun. a powdery metallic oxide formed when an ore or mineral has been heated.

actinism - adjective. (of light or lightning) able to cause photochemical reactions, as in photography, through having a significant short wavelength or ultraviolet component.- relating to or caused by such light

spalt - adjective. (of wood) containing blackish irregular lines as a result of a fungal decay, and sometimes used to produce a decorative surface

swizzle - noun. a mixed alcoholic drink, esp. a frothy one of rum or gin and bitters

Prince Rupert's Drops, also Rupert's Balls or Dutch Tears - noun. glass objects created by dripping molten glass into cold water. The glass cools into a tadpole-shaped droplet with a long thin tail. The water rapidly cools the molten glass on the outside of the drop, while the inner portion of the drop remains significantly hotter. When the glass on the inside eventually cools, t contracts inside the already solid outer part. This contraction sets up very large compressive stresses on the exterior, while the core of the drop is in a state of tensile stress. The very high residual stress within the drop gives rise to unusual qualities, such as the ability to withstand a blow from a hammer on the bulbous end without breaking, while the drop will disintegrate explosively if the tail is even slightly damaged.

soda lime - noun. a mixture of calcium oxide and sodium hydroxide

Kristallnact - the occasion of concerted violence by Nazis throughout Germany and Austria against the Jews and their property on the night of November 9-10, 1938

ORIGIN: German, literally 'night of crystal', referring to the broken glass produced by the
smashing of store windows

potsherd - noun. a broken piece of ceramic material, esp. one found on an archaeological site.

Rabat - proper noun. the capital of Morocco, an industrial port on the Atlantic coast; pop. 1,220,000. It was founded as a military fort in the 12th century by the Almohads.

Almohad - noun. (pl. -hads) a member of a Berber Muslim movement an

vitriol - noun. archaic or poetic/literary. sulfuric acid. - figurative. cruel and bitter criticism. fury and vitriol.

aglet - noun. a metal or plastic tube fixed tightly around each end of a shoelace.

caldera - noun. a large volcanic crater, typically one formed by a major eruption leading to the collapse of the mouth of the volcano. caldaria, latin, "cooking pot" ,

Tenerife - a volcanic island in the Atlantic Ocean, the largest of the Canary Islands; pop 771,000; capital, Santa Cruz

toponymy - noun. the study of place names

demonic  - noun. also, gentilic, is a name for a resident of a locality. Although not always derived from the name of the locality. The name for a resident of Britain is Briton, and the demonic for a resident of Turkey is Turk. Yet the most common demonic is for the people of the Netherlands, Dutch. Though Netherlander is also used.

orography - noun. the branch of physical geography dealing with mountains

gregarious - adjective. (of a person) fond of company; sociable: he was a popular and sociable man. (of animals) living in flocks or loosely organized communities: gregarious species forage in flocks from colonies or roosts. (of plants) growing in open clusters or in pure associations. ORIGIN: mid 17th century.: from Latin gregarious (from grex, greg-'a flock') + OUS.

Herd behavior - Herd behavior describes how individuals in a group can act together without planned direction. The term pertains to the behavior of animals in herds, flocks, and schools, and to human conduct during activities such as stock market bubbles and crashes, street demonstrations, riots, and general strikes, sporting events, religious gatherings, episodes of mob violence and everyday decision making, judgement, and opinion-forming. Raafat, Chater, and Frith proposed an integrated approach to herding, describing two key issues, the mechanisms of transmission of thoughts or behavior between individuals and the patterns of connections between them. They suggested that bringing together diverse theoretical approaches of herding behavior illuminates the applicability of the concept to many domains ranging from cognitive neuroscience to economics.

Herd Behavior in Animals

A group of animals fleeing from a predator shows the nature of herd behavior. In 1971, in the oft cited article "Geometry For The Selfish Herd," evolutionary biologist W.D. Hamilton asserted that each individual group member reduces the danger to itself by moving as close as possible to the center of the fleeing group. Thus the herd appears as a unit in moving together, but its function emerges from the uncoordinated behavior of self-serving individuals.

Buridan's ass - noun. theory. an illustration of a paradox in philosophy in the conception of free well. It refers to a hypothetical situation wherein an ass that is equally hungry and thirsty is placed precisely between a stack of hay and a pail of water. Since the paradox assumes the ass will always go to whichever is closer, it will die of both under and thirst since it cannot make any rational decision to choose one over the other. The paradox is named after the 14th century French philosopher Jean Buridan, whose philosophy of moral determinism it satirizes. A common variant of the paradox substitutes two identical piles of hay for the hay and water; the ass, unable to choose between the two, dies of hunger.

Selfish Herd Theory - The Selfish herd theory states that individuals within a population attempt to reduce their predation risk by putting other conspecifics between themselves and predators. Such behavior inevitably results in aggregations. The theory was proposed by W.D. Hamilton in 1971 in an attempt to explain the gregarious behavior witnessed by a variety of animals. It contrasted the popular hypothesis that evolution of such social behavior was based on mutual benefits of a population. The basic principle governing the Selfish Herd Theory is that in aggregations, predation risk is greets on the periphery and decreases toward the center. More dominant animals within the population are supposed to obtain low-risk central positions, whereas, subordinate animals will be forced into higher risk positions. Many researches used this idea to explain why population at higher predation risks often form larger, more compact groups. It also may explain why these aggregations are often sorted by phenotypic characteristics such as strength.

Phenotype - noun. Biology. the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment. ORIGIN: sense 1 from French 'pheynl,' from Greek phaino- 'shining'; both senses from Greek phainein 'to show'

benzene - noun. a colorless volatile liquid hydrocarbon present in coal tar and petroleum, used in chemical synthesis. Its use as a solvent has been reduced because of its carcinogenic properties. Chem. formula. C6H6

salano - the local name for an eastern wind in Spain. It is also used for hot suffocating winds of any origin in Burgos and the Basque Country.

Voronoi diagram - In mathematics, a Voronoi diagram is a way of dividing space into a number of regions. A set of points (called seeds, sites, or generators) is specified beforehand and for each seed there will be a corresponding region consisting of all points closer to that seed than to any other. The regions are called Voronoi cells. It is dual to the Delaunay triangulation. It is named after Georgy Voronoi, and is also called a Voronoi tessellation, a Voronoi decomposition, or a Dirichlet tessellation(after Lejeune Dirichlet). Voronoi diagrams can be found in a large number of fields in science and technology, even in art, and they have found numerous practical and theoretical applications.

Delaunay triangulation - In mathematics and computational geometry, a Delaunay triangulation for a  set of P of points in a plane is a triangulation DT( P) such that no point in P is inside the circumscircles of any triangle in DT( P). Delaunay triangulations maximize the minimum angle of all the angles of the triangles in the triangulation; they tend to avoid skinny triangles. The triangulation is named after Boris Delaunay for his work on this topic from 1934.

Moroni - proper noun. the capital of Comoros, on the island of Grande Comore; pop. 22,000

aggregate - noun. 1 a whole formed by combining several (typically disparate) elements: his love life was combined of three aggregate women. - the total number of points scored by a player or team in a series of sporting contests. 2 a material or structure formed from a loosely compacted mass of fragments or particles.

adjective. formed or calculated by the combination of many separate units or items; total : the aggregate amount of poems written. Botany. (of a group of species) comprising several very similar species formerly regarded as a single species. Economics. denoting the total supply or demand for goods and services in an economy at a  particular time: aggregate demand\aggregate supply.

verb. form or group into a class or cluster: [intrans.] the butterflies aggregate in dense groups.

ORIGIN: late Middle English: from Latin aggregat- 'herded together,' from the verb aggregate, from ad- 'toward' + grex, greg- 'a flock.'

massif - non. a compact group of mountains, esp. one that is separate from other groups. ORIGIN: early 16th cent. (denoting a large building): French adjective meaning 'massive,' used as a noun.

Gallotia - noun. the genus of lacertids(wall lizards) of the Canary Islands. This genus consists of a group that has been evolving there ever since the first islands emerged from the sea over 20 million years ago. The endemic species and subspecies of this group have a number of characteristics that make them quite special within their family (Lacertidae); their only close relatives are the sandrunner lizards (Psammodromus) of the western Mediterranean region. Gallotia are characteristic for eating significant quantities of plants, and for several lineages having evolved from insular gigantism.

Insular gigantism - noun. theory. Island gigantism or insular giantism us a biological phenomenon in which the size of animals isolated on an island increases dramatically in comparison to their mainland relatives. Island gigantism is one aspect of the more general, "island rule", which posits that when mainland animals colonize islands, small species tend to evolve larger bodies, and large species tend to evolve smaller bodies. With the arrival of humans and associated predators (dogs, cats, rats, pigs) many giant island endemics have become extinct.

Possible Causes of island gigantism

Large mammalian carnivores are often absent on islands, due to insufficient range or difficulties in over-water dispersal. In their absence, the ecological niches for large predators may be occupied by birds or reptiles, which can then grow to larger-than-normal size. For example, on prehistoric Gargano Island in the Miocene-Pliocene Mediterranean, on islands in the Caribbean like Cuba, and on Madagascar and New Zealand, some or all apex predators were birds like eagles, falcons, and owls, including some of the largest known examples of these groups. However, birds and reptiles generally make less efficient large predators than advanced carnivorans. Since small size usually makes it easier for herbivores to escape or hide from predators, the decreased predation pressure on islands can allow them to grow larger. Small herbivores may also benefit from the absence of competition from missing types of large herbivores. Thus, island gigantism is usually an evolutionary trend resulting from the removal of constraints on the size of small animals related to predation and/or competition. Such constraints can operate differently depending on the size of the animal, however; for example, while small herbivores may escape predation by hiding, large herbivores may deter predators by intimidation. As a result, the complementary phenomenon of island dwarfism can also result from the removal of constraints related to predation and/or competition on the size of large herbivores. In contrast, insular dwarfism among predators more commonly results from the imposition of constraints associated with the limited prey resources available on islands. As opposed to island dwarfism, island gigantism is found in most major vertebrate groups and in invertebrates. A further means of establishing island gigantism may be a founder effect operative when larger members of a mainland population are superior in their ability to colonize islands.

Optimal foraging theory - Optimal foraging theory is an idea in ecology based on the study of foraging behavior and states that organisms forage in such a way as to maximize their net energy intake per unit time. In other words, they behave in such a way as to find, capture and consume food containing the most calories while expending the least amount of time possible in doing so.

The Functional Classes of Predators

Optimal foraging theory uses predators as the object of analysis.
There are four functional classes of predators:

-True predators attack large numbers of their prey throughout their life. They kill their prey immediately, or shortly after the attack. They may eat all or only part of their prey. True predators include tigers, lions, plankton-eating whales, seed-eating birds, ants, and humans.

-Grazers attack large numbers of their prey throughout their lifetime and eat only a portion of their prey. They harm the prey, but rarely kill it. Grazers include locusts, leeches, and mosquitos.

-Parasites, like grazers, eat only a part of their prey(host) but rarely the entire organism, and spend all or a large portion of their life cycle living in/on a single host. This much more intimate relationship is typical of tapeworms, liver flukes, and plant parasites such as the potato blight.

-Parasitoids are mainly typical of wasps(order Hymenoptera), and some flies(order Diptera). Eggs are laid inside the larvae of other arthropods which hatch and consume the host from the inside, killing it. This intimate predator-host relationship is typical of about 10% of all insects. Many viruses that attack single-celled organisms (such as bacteriophage) are also parasitoids, in that they reproduce inside a single host that is inevitably killed by the association.

Basic Variables of OFT

The OFT attempts to explain predator behavior since no predator eats everything available. This is typically due to habitat and size constraints, but even within habitats, predators eat only a proportion of what is available.

E is the amount of energy(calories) from a prey item. h is the handling time, which includes capture, killing, eating, and digesting. h starts once the prey has been spotted. E/h is therefore the profitability of the prey item.

Miocene - adjective. of, relating to, or denoting the fourth epoch of the Tertiary period, between the Oligocene and Pliocene epochs. (the Miocene) the Miocene epoch or the system of rocks deposited during it. The Miocene Epoch lasted from 23.3 million to 5.2 million years ago. During this time, the Alps and Himalayas were being formed and there was diversification of the primates, including first apes. The Miocene is a geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about 23.03 to 5.332 million years ago. The Miocene was named by Sir Charles Lyell. Its name comes from the Greek words meaning "less," and "new" and means "less recent" because it has 18% fewer modern sea invertebrates than the Pliocene Epoch. The Miocene is the first epoch of the Neogene Period.

Pliocene - adjective. Geology. of, relating to, or denoting the last epoch of the Tertiary period, between the Miocene and Pleistocene epochs. (the Pliocene) the Pliocene epoch or the system of rocks deposited during it.

Lagomorpha - Zoology. an order of mammals that comprises the hares, rabbits, and pikas. They are distinguished by the possession of double incisor teeth, and were formerly placed with the rodents. The two living families: the Leporidae(hares and rabbits) and the Ochotonidae(pikas). The name of the order is derived from the Greek ,lagos, "hare" and morphe "form."

Foster's Rule - Foster's Rule also known as "island rule," is a principle in evolutionary biology stating that members of a species get smaller or bigger depending on the resources available in the environment. This is the core of the study of island biogeography. For example, it is known that pygmy mammoths evolved from normal mammoths on small islands. Similar evolutionary paths have been observed in elephants, hippopotamuses, boas, deer, and humans.

Bergmann's Rule - an ecogeographic principle that states that within a broadly distributed taxonomic clade, populations and species of larger size are found in colder environments, and species of smaller size are found in warmer regions. Although originally formulated in terms of species within a genus, it has often been recast in terms of populations within a species. It is also often cast in terms of latitude. The rule is named after a nineteenth-century German biologist, Carl Bergmann, who among the first to describe the pattern in 1847. Bergmann's rule is most often applied to mammals and birds which are endotherms, but some researchers have also found evidence for the rule in studies of ectothermic species such as the ant Leptothorax acervorum(red ant). While Bergmann's rule appears to hold true for many mammals and birds, there are exceptions.

Endotherm - An endotherm (Greek: endon = "within", theorem = "heat") is an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by use of a heat set free by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost purely on ambient heat. Such internally generated heat is mainly an incidental product of the animal's routine metabolism, but under conditions of excessive cold or low activity an endotherm might apply special mechanisms adapted specifically to heat production. Examples include special-function muscular exertion such as shivering, and uncoupled oxidative metabolism such as within brown adipose tissue.

brown adipose tissue - Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat is one of two types of fat or adipose tissue (the other being white adipose tissue) found in mammals. It is especially abundant in newborns and in hibernating mammals. Its primary function is to generate body heat in animals or newborns that do not shiver. In contrast to white adipocytes (fat cells), which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a much higher number of (iron containing) mitochondria, which make it brown. Brown fat also contains more capillaries than white fat, since it has a greater need for oxygen than most tissues.

Biochemistry

The mitochondria in a eukaryotic cell utilize fuels to produce energy(in the form of ATP). This process involves storing energy as a proton gradient, also known as the proton motive force(PMF), across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This energy is used to synthesize ATP when the protons flow across the membrane (down their concentration gradient) through the ATP synthase enzyme; this is known as chemiosmosis (the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient). In warm-blooded animals, body heat is maintained by signaling the mitochondria to allow protons to run back along the gradient without producing ATP. This can occur since an alternative return route for the protons exists through an uncoupling protein in the inner membrane. This protein, known as uncoupling protein 1 (thermogenin), facilitates the return of the protons after they have been actively pumped out of the mitochondria by the electron transport chain. This alternative route for protons uncouples oxidative phophorylation(OXPHOS, is a metabolic pathway that uses energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to produce adenosine triphosphote) and the energy in the PMF is instead released as heat. To some degree, all cells of endotherms give off heat, especially when body temperature is below a regulatory threshold. However, brown adipose tissue is highly specialized for this non-shivering thermogenesis. First, each cell has a higher number of mitochondria compared to more typical cells. Second, these mitochondria have a higher-than-normal concentration of thermogenin in the inner membrane

eclosion - verb. [intrans.] Entomology. (of an insect) emerge as an adult from the pupa or as a larva from the egg.

abele - noun. a white poplar tree

abasement - verb. behave in a way so as to belittle or degrade (someone)

abaft - adverb. Nautical. in or behind the stern of a ship.

abditive - adjective. having the quality of hiding

aberuncators - noun. a large tool for pruning tall branches

abscind - to pare, reduce, cut off or away

abscond - verb. leave hurriedly and secretly, typically to avoid detection

aeolistic - long winded

advesperate - darken; or become late

aeolian - adjective. poetic/literary. characterized by a sighing or moaning sound as if produced by the wind.

aerolith - a stone that falls from the sky; meteorite.

aeviternal - everlasting; endless.

zelkova - noun. an Asian tree of the elm family, often cultivated as an ornamental for its timber, or as a bonsai tree.

afflated- inspired.

agromania - intense desire to be in open spaces

agrypnia - insomnia

ahuli - with sails furred and helm lashed to the lee-side

aiger - tidal wave occurring in rivers

allision - intentional collision of two ships

altricial - adjective. (of a young bird or other animal) hatched or born in an undeveloped state requiring care and feeding by the parents
ALSO NIDICOLOUS. Often contrasted with PRECOCIAL.

amidship - adverb. adjective. in the middle of a ship

alopecoid - of or resembling a fox

amrita - noun. a syrup considered divine by Sikhs, Hindu ambrosia bestowing immortality

ancon - noun. elbow

anteloquy - preface

anteprandial - before dinner

anthophilous - loving or frequenting flowers

anurous - tallness

aphrasia - inability to speak

apodysophilia  - feverish desire to undress

chunter - speak in a soft voice, mumble

sirocco - noun. a hot wind often dusty or rainy, blowing from North Africa across the Mediterranean to southern Europe

hypocaust - noun. a hollow space under the floor of an ancient Roman building, into which hot air was sent for heating  a room or a bath

palaver - noun. prolonged and idle discussion. an hour of aimless palaver

fug - noun. a warm stuffy or smoky atmosphere in a room. the cozy fugue of the music halls.

simoom - noun. a hot, dry, dust-laden wind blowing in the desert, esp. in Arabia. ORIGIN: from Arabic samma 'to poison'

chinook - noun. (also chinook wind) a warm dry wind that blows down the east side of the Rocky Mountains at the end of winter.

khamsin - noun. an oppressive, hot southerly or southeasterly wind blowing in Egypt in spring. ORIGIN: late 17th cent.: from Arabic kamsin, from kamsun 'fifty' (being the approx. duration in days)

ghibli - noun. Arabic. a hot wind from the Sahara desert.

Harmattan - a dry and dusty West African trade wind. It blows south from the Sahara into the Gulf of Guinea between the end of November and the middle of March.

Brickfielder - a hot and dry wind in the desert of Southern Australia that occurs in the summer season.

badinage - playful repartee or banter

bailment - noun. Law. delivery of goods in trust

balbutier - verb. to stammer; to stutter

baiseman - noun. a kiss on the hand

balbriggan - knitted cotton fabric

baragouin - any jargon or unintelligible language

maenad - noun. (in ancient Greece) a female follower of Bacchus, traditionally associated with divine possession and frenzied rites.

basiation - kissing

dither - verb. be indecisive.

phlegmatic - adjective. (of a person) having an unemotional and stolidly calm disposition.

commove - verb. move violently; agitate or excite

corybantic - adjective. wild frenzied

tizzy - noun. a state of nervous excitement or agitation. he got into a tizzy and was talking absolute nonsense.

het up - adjective. angry and agitated. her husband got all het up about something.

pother - noun. a commotion or fuss. don' t make such a pother.

salacious - adjective. (of writing, pictures, or talk) treating sexual matters in an indecent way and typically conveying undue interest in or enjoyment of the subject: salacious stories. lustful; lecherous ORIGIN: mid 17th century: from Latin salax, salac- from salire 'to leap' + -IOUS

virga - noun. a mass of streaks of rain appearing to hang under a cloud and evaporating before reaching the ground.

strombuliform - adjective. formed or shaped like a top, coiled into the shape of a screw or a helix

bavian - insignificant or unskilled poet

bellonephlia - sexual obsession with sharp objects

bathylkopian - deep bosomed

bullace - wild plum

bibliophagist - one who devours books literally or figuratively

biduous - lasting two days

bletherskate - a garrulous talker of nonsense

bloviate - to write or speak windily

bodement - prediction or prophecy

brasero - a place where criminals and heretics are burned

breme - fierce; cruel, keen

brigue - to intrigue

bilocation - ability to be in two places at once

anemometer - noun. a device for measuring wind speed. ORIGIN: Greek from anemos 'wind'.

foehn wind - noun. any of the dry winds that down slope on the lee(downside) of a mountain range.

eddy - a circular movement of water, counter to a main current, causing a small whirl pool ORIGIN: probably German -ed 'again, back'

bora - noun. a strong, cold, dry northeast wind blowing in the upper Adriatic

caecias - noun. a wind from the Northeast.

tepefy - verb. to make or become tepid

tepor - noun. gentle heat; moderate warmth; tepidness

toper - verb. [intrans.] archaic. poetic\literary. drink alcohol to excess, esp. on a regular basis. ORIGIN: mid 17th century.: perhaps an alteration of obsolete top(overbalance) ; perhaps from Dutch toppen 'slant or tilt a ship's yard.'

lew - adjective. lukewarm, tepid

rubicon - noun. a point of no return; (in piquet) an act of winning a game against an opponent whose total score is less than 100, in which case the loser's score is added to rather than subtracted from the winner; ALSO: a stream in northeastern Italy that marked the ancient boundary between Italy and Cisalpine Gaul. Julius Caesar led his army across it into Italy in 49 BC, breaking the law forbidding a general to lead an army out of his province, and so committing himself to war against the Senate and Pompey. The ensuing civil war resulted in victory for Caesar after three years

piquet - noun. a trick-taking card game for two players, using a 32-card deck consisting of cards from the seven to the ace

April 13th, 2013

indusium - noun. Botany. a thin membranous covering, esp. a shield covering a sorus on a fern frond ORIGIN: early 18th cent.: from Latin, literally 'tunic,' from induere 'put on, to don.'

sorus - noun. Botany. a cluster of spore-producing receptacles on the underside of a fern frond. A gamete-producing or fruiting body in certain algae and fungi. ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: modern Latin, from Greek suros 'heap.'

scamp - noun. Informal. a person, esp. a child, who is mischievous in a likable or amusing way; a wicked or worthless person; a rogue; verb. dated. do (something) in a perfunctory or inadequate way. ORIGIN: mid 18th cent.: (denoting a highwayman): from obsolete scamp [rob on the highway.] Probably from Middle Dutch schampen 'slip away,' from Old French eschamper 'flee the battlefield,' from champ 'field.'

hellion - noun. informal. a rowdy, mischievous, or troublemaking person, esp. a child ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: perhaps from dialect hallion (a worthless fellow,] changed by association with hell.

Fox - noun. a member of an American Indian people formerly living in southern Wisconsin, and now mainly in Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas; the Algonquian language of this people; adjective. of or relating to this people or their language.

scalawag - noun. informal. a person who behaves badly but in an amusingly mischievous rather than harmful way; a rascal. 2. historical. a white Southerner who collaborated with northern Republicans during Reconstruction, often for personal profit. The term was used derisively by white Southern Democrats who opposed Reconstruction legislation. ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: of unknown origin. also scallywag.

varmint - noun. dialect/informal. a troublesome wild animal, esp. a fox; a troublesome and mischievous person, esp. a child. ORIGIN: mid 16th cent.: alteration of vermin.

rapscallion -  noun. archaic or humorous. a mischievous person. ORIGIN: late 17 cent.: alteration of earlier rascallion, perhaps from rascal.

scapegrace - noun. archaic. a mischievous or wayward person, esp. a young person or child; a rascal. ORIGIN: early 19th cent.: from scape + grace, literally denoting a person who escapes the grace of God.

anallantoic - adjective. Anatomy. without, or not developing, an allantois

allantaois - noun. Embryology. Zoology. a vascular, extraembryonic membrane of birds, reptiles, and certain mammals that develops as a sac or diverticulum from the ventral wall of the hindgut. ORIGIN: 1640-50
anamniotic -

azygous - adjective. Anatomy/Biology. (of an organic structure) single; not existing in pairs. ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: from Greek azugos 'unyoked' (from a- 'without' + zugon 'yoke') + -OUS

biennial - adjective. taking place every other year; of a plant. living or lasting two years

emergent - adjective. 1. in the process of coming into being or becoming prominent :  the emergent poetic works of Martin Narrod. 2. Philosophy. (of a property) arising as an effect of complex causes and not analyzable simply as the sum of their effects 3. Botany. of or denoting a plant that is taller than the surrounding vegetation, esp. a tall tree in a forest 4. Botany. of or denoting a water plant with leaves and flowers that appear above the water surface 5. arising and existing only as a phenomenon of independent parts working together, and not predictable on the basis of their properties 6. Philosophy. noun. an emergent property; Botany. an emergent tree or other plants. ORIGIN: late Middle English (in the sense [occurring unexpectedly] ) from Latin emergent- 'arising from,' from the verb emergere.

exogenous - adjective. of, relating to, or developing from external factors

phobophobia - noun. an abnormal fear of developing a phobia; anxiety about showing symptoms of phobia.

scutellum - noun. Biology & Zoology. a small shield-like structure, in particular: a modified cotyledon in the embryo of a grass seed, or the third dorsal sclerite in each thoracic segment of an insect.

spinescent - noun. Botanical Morphology. thorns, spines, and prickles are hard structures with sharp, or at least pointed, ends. In spite of this common feature, they differ in their growth and development on the plant; they are modified versions of different plant organs, stems, stipules, leaf veins, or hairs. In nontechnical usage, the terms may be synonyms.

stipule - noun. Botany. a small leaflike appendage to a leaf, typically borne in pairs at the base of the leaf stalk. ORIGIN: late 18th cent.: from French stipule or Latin stipula 'straw.'

stipple - verb. (in drawing, painting, and engraving) mark (a surface) with numerous small dots or specks ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: from Dutch stippelen frenquentative of stippen 'to prick,' from stip 'a point.'

frequentative - adjective. (of a verb or verbal form) expressing frequent repetition or intensity of action d

derisively - adjective. expressing contempt or ridicule ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: from derision , on the pattern of the pair decision, decisive.

efflorescence - verb. [intrans.] (of a substance) lose moisture and turn to a fine powder upon exposure to air. 2. (of salts) come to the surface of a brickwork, rock, or other material and crystallize there 3. (of a surface) become covered with salt particles. 4. reach an optimum stage of development. ORIGIN: late 18th cent.: from Latin efflorescere , from e- (variant of ex-) 'out' + florescere ' begin to bloom' (from florere 'to bloom,' from flos, flor 'flower.'

acropetal - adjective. Botany. (of a growth or development) upward from the base or point of attachment. The opposite of BASIPETAL. 2. (of the movement of dissolved substances) outward toward the shoot and root apexes.

algerining - verb. sneaking around with the intent of committing a burglary.

autolatrist - noun. one who worships themselves

autotonsorialist - one who cuts their own hair

batrachophagous - noun. someone who eats frogs

dactylion - noun. the tip of the middle finger

eccedentesiast - noun. one who fakes a smile, esp. on television

fabiform - adjective. in the shape of a bean

filipendulous - adjective. Botany. suspended by, or strung upon, a thread; said of tuberous swellings in the middle or at the extremities of slender, threadlike rootlets ORIGIN: from Latin filum 'a thread' + 'pendulus 'hanging,' from French pendre ' to hang.]

affricate - noun. Phonetics. a phoneme that combines a plosive with an immediately following fricative or spirant sharing the same place of articulation. e.g., ch as in chair and j as in jar. ORIGIN: late 19th cent. : from Latin affricatus, past participle of affricare, from ad- 'to' + fricare 'to rub'

allantois - noun. the fetal membrane lying below the chorion in many vertebrates, formed as an outgrowth of the embryo's gut. In birds and reptiles it grows to surround the embryo; in eutherian mammals it forms part of the placenta.

Eutheria - Zoology. a major group of mammals that comprises placentals. Compare with Metatheria. Infraclass Eutheria, subclass Theria ORIGIN: modern Latin (plural), from EU- [well, prospering] + Greek therion 'wild beast.'

thermion - noun. an ion or electron emitted by a substance at high temperature ORIGIN: early 20th cent.: from THERMO- 'of heat' + ION.

thereon - adverb. formal. on or following from the thing just mention: the prurient fellatio the foyer and the coitus in the master bedroom thereon.

amnion - noun. the innermost membrane that encloses the embryo of a mammal, bird, or reptile. ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: from Greek, 'caul,' diminutive of amnos 'lamb.'

epitasis - noun. plural. the part of an ancient drama, following the protasis, in which the main action is developed. ORIGIN: 1580-90 from Greek epitasis 'emphasis, increase intensity, stretching,' equivalent to epi- + ta- (variant of stem of teinein 'to stretch') +  -sis.

achene - noun. Botany. a small, dry, one-seeded fruit that does not open to release the seed. ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: from modern Latin achaenium, derived irregularly from a- 'not' + Greek khainein 'to gape.'

amalgam - noun. a mixture or blend

folkpartiet - noun. a liberal and conservative-liberal political party in Sweden

clannasaor - noun. a small political party out of Scotland

liege - adjective. relating to the relationship between a feudal superior and a vassal

vassal - noun. historical. a holder of land by feudal tenure on conditions of homage and allegiance

fealty - noun. a feudal tenant's or vassal's sworn loyalty to a lord; allegiance

mittimus - noun. an arrest warrant issued by and on behalf of the state.

renege - verb. go back on a promise

gabelle - noun. a tax on salt.

gossolalia - adjective. fluent nonsense

gossypiboma - noun. a sponge accidentally left inside one's body during surgery.

hemolysis - verb. breaking open a red blood cell

hieracosphinx - noun. a sphinx with the head of a hawk

jentacular - adjective. having to do with breakfast

jumentous - adjective. smelling similar to or like horse urine

kakorrhaphiophobia - noun. a fear of failure

knismesis - noun. light tickling

kyphorrhinos - adjective. to have a nose with a bump on it

labrose - adjective. to have large lips

catarrhines - adjective. belonging to or pertaining to the group Catarrhini, comprising humans, anthropoid apes, and Old World monkeys, having the nostrils close together and opening downward and a nonprehensile, often greatly reduced or vestigial tail. 2. noun. a catarrhine animal. ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: from Neo-Latin Catarrhini, plural of catarrhinus, from Greek katarrhin 'hook-nosed,' equivalent to kata- cata- + -rhin 'nosed,' adjective. derivative of rhis- 'nose, snout.'

lythcoop - verb. an auction of household goods

mortress - noun. a dish of meats and other ingredients, cooked together; an 'ollapodrida' - Chaucer. Bacon

synodite - noun. a traveling companion

lusory - adjective. used in play; playful; sportive.

donnerd - adjective. grossly stupid; stunned; dazed.

grobianism - noun. a rude or clownish person; boor; lout.

lout - noun. an uncouth or aggressive man or boy ORIGIN: mid 16th. cent.: from archaic lout [to bow down,] of Germanic origin.

mundungus - adjective. offal; waste animal product; organic matter unfit for consumption.

parthenocarpy - noun. Botany. the development of a fruit without prior fertilization. ORIGIN: early 20th cent.: from german Parthenocarpie, from Greek parthenos 'virgin' + karpos 'fruit.'

whinyard -

weisure -

ninmiety -

panurgic -

chapfallen -

billingsgate -

latration -

witticaster -

sliteroo -

rux -

mirliton -

ruelle -

prolix -

ageusia -

animadversion -

arabesque -

beadle -

brachymetropia -

colophon -

desquamation -

diegesis -

vinny -

spleenful -

crocodilne -

subdolous -

apivorous -

lowlily -

capriped -

agazed -

daring-hardy -

saturnine - adjective. (of a person or their manner) slow and gloomy; (of a person) dark in coloring and moody or mysterious; 3. (of a place or occasion) gloomy. ORIGIN: late Middle English (as a term in astrology): from Old French saturnin, from medieval Latin Saturninus 'of Saturn' (identified with lead by the alchemists and associated with slowness and gloom by astrologers).

swarthy - adjective. dark-skinned ORIGIN: late 16th cent.: alteration of obsolete swarty

swart - adjective. archaic. poetic/literary. swarthy. ORIGIN: Old English sweart, of Germanic origin: related to Dutch zwart and German schwarz.

mercurial - adjective. (of a person) subject to sudden or unpredictable changes of mood or mind 2. (of a person) sprightly; lively 3. of or containing the element mercury. 3. (Mercurial) of the plant Mercury 4. noun. a drug or other compound related to Mercury. ORIGIN: late Middle English (sense 3) : from Latin mercurialis 'relating to the god Mercury,' from Mercurius 'Mercury.' (Sense 1) dates from the mid 17th century.

sprightly - adjective. (esp. of an old person) lively; full of energy. ORIGIN: late 16th cent.: from spright (a rare variant of SPRITE)

plaintive - adjective. sounding sad and mournful ORIGIN: late Middle English : from Old French plaintif -ive , from plainte 'lamentation.'

dour - adjective. relentlessly severe, stern, or gloomy in manner or appearance ORIGIN: late Middle English (originally Scots) probably from Scottish Gaelic dur 'dull, obstinate, stupid,' perhaps from Latin durus 'hard.'

perendinate -

dysbulia -

kalon -

tycolysis -

fungible -

cibarious -

gradine -

worricow -

fritinancy -

proditorius -

mycterism -

roorback -

troorback -

kyphotic -

corody -

cordon -

suoid -

burdalane -

ryotwar -

branular -

tremellose -






claudel - noun. a French sculpture best known for her bust models o Auguste Rodin (1864-1943)

deontology - noun. Philosophy. the study of the nature of duty and obligation.

incurrence - verb. become subject to something unwelcome or unpleasant as a result of one's own behavior or actions ORIGIN: late Middle English : from Latin incurrere, from in- 'toward' + currere 'run'

recant - verb. say that one no longer holds an opinion or belief

espousal - noun. an act of adopting or supporting a cause, belief, or way of life

marasmus - noun. Medicine. severe undernourishment causing an infant's or child's weight to be significantly low for their age (e.g. below 60 percent of normal.

dote - verb. to bestow or express excessive love or fondness habitually (usually followed by on or up), 2. to show a decline of mental faculties, especially with old age. 3. decay of wood. ORIGIN: 1175-1225; Middle English, doten, to behave foolishly, become feeble minded; cognate with Middle Dutch doten.

amatory - adjective. of or pertaining to lovers or lovemaking; expressive of love: amatory poems; an amatory look. ORIGIN: 1590-1600; < Latin amatorius. ama- stem of amara+ to love.

sapphic - adjective. pertaining to sappho or toe certain meters or a for of strophe or stanza used by or named after her. Lesbian. a sapphic verse.

byblis - pursuant goddess of Caunus(brother of byblis) when he fled, she chased him, having torn off her clothes, dying along and having cried so often she was made into a Spring.

oshun - in the Yoruba Religion of Nigeria, Oshun is an Orisha who reigns over love, intimacy, beauty, wealth, and diplomacy. She is worshipped also in Brazilian Candomble Ketu with the name Oxum

ardent - adjective. having, expressive of, or characterized by intense feeling; passionate; fervent; an ardent vow. intensely devoted, eager, or enthusiastic; burning; firey; hot. ORIGIN: Latin, ardere, to burn

deflagrate - verb. to burn, especially suddenly and violently. ORIGIN: Latin deflagrare to burn.

igneous - adjective. geology. produced under conditions involving intense heat. as rocks of volcanic origin or rocks crystallized from molten magma. of, pertaining to, or characteristic of fire. ORIGIN: Latin igneus, equivalent to ign(is) fire.

fervid - adjective. heated or vehement in spirit; enthusiasm. ORIGIN: Latin, fervidus: boiling.

perfervid - adjective. very fervent; very ardent; impassioned

zelophobia - noun. the fear of jealousy

onomatomania - the obsession with a particular word which the person uses repeatedly or which intrudes into consciousness

incubus - noun. a male demon believed to have sexual intercourse with sleeping women. 2. figurative - a cause of distress of anxiety 3. archaic - a nightmare ORIGIN: Middle English : Latin form of Latin incubo 'nightmare,'incubare 'lie on'

loganamnosis - noun. an obsession with trying to recall a forgotten word

anglomania - noun. an excessive admiration of English customs

plutomania - noun. a passion or craving for wealth, obsession with money; delusion that on is wealthy

rhytiscopia - noun. an obsession with searching for wrinkles; especially, on the face

anthomania - noun. an extravagant passion for flowers

cacospectamania - noun. an obsession at staring at something which is repulsive

catapedamania - noun. the irrational obsession with jumping from high places

dacnomania - noun. an obsession with killing

dacoitage - noun. robbery by gang or mob

doramania - noun. the compulsion to own furs; the abnormal interest in fur.

erastophilia - noun. reference to a personality trait which assesses an individuals disposition to respond to sexual cues in either a positive or a negative manner.

francomania - noun. an obsession with French culture, language, or people

gallomania - noun. a strong predilection for anything French; an excessive admiration for anything French.

gamomania - noun. an obsessive desire for making bizarre marriage proposals.

gigmania - noun. the smug obsession with attaining middle class respectability

girouettism - noun. altering one's opinions to match public trends

grandgousier - one who will eat as much as possible of anything

graptomancy - divination using hand writing

gressible - noun. able to walk

griffonage - noun. sloppy or illegible hand writing

gaberluzie - noun. a wandering beggar or a harmless homeless person.

galea - noun. a headache which covers the entire head

galeanthropy - noun. the delusion that one is a cat

galeophobia - noun. a fear of sharks or cats

gargalesthesia - noun. the sensation caused by tickling

gastromancy - noun. divination using a crystal ball

geck - noun. an expression of scorn or contempt

gelophobia - noun. a fear of laughter

grapholagnia - noun. the urge to stare at obscene photographs

graphomania - noun. a passion or urge to write

hellenomania - noun. an obsession with Greece and the Greeks.

hippopotomonstrosesquppedaliophobia - noun. a fear of using long words

honorificabilitudinitatibus - adjective. honorable

logolepsy - noun. a fascination or obsession with words

oenomania - noun. alcoholic

orchidomania - an obsession with orchids; a pleasure gained from raising or collecting orchids

parateresiomania - noun. an obsession or compulsion to see new sights or places

parousiamania - noun. an obsession with or excitement about the return of Christ.

stigmatophilia - noun. Psychiatry. a sexual perversion in which arousal and orgasm depend upon the partner being scarred, marked, tattooed, or pierced (especially in the genital or nipple region so bars, rings, etc. can be worn); the term also includes the person who must also be marked in the same way

tulipomania - noun. a violent passion for the acquisition or cultivation of tulips

undinism - the act of urinating on someone

pantheistic - noun. a doctrine that identifies God with the universe, or regards the universe as a manifestation of God; rare. worship that admits or tolerates all Gods

cosmogony - noun. the branch of science that deals with the origin of the universe, esp. the solar system

macrocosm - noun. the universe; the cosmos

ecumenical - adjective. of worldwide scope or applicability; universal; concerned with establishing or promoting unity among churches or religions

bacchanal - noun. drunkard; reveller

baft - noun. a cheap coarse fabric

bahadur - self-important official

balaniferous - adjective. acorn-bearing

heliophobia - noun. a fear of sunlight

helcoid - noun. ulcerous

heliotrope - purplish hue; purplish flower or plant

helminthiasis - noun. an infestation of worms

helobious - verb. living in marshes or moors

helotry - noun. a class of slaves

hemialgia - adjective. a pain in one side of the body alone

hemistich - noun. half a verse line

hendecagon - noun. an eleven sided figure

dratchell

feaque -

fustilug -

growthead

kaynard -

lurdan -

luskish -

piker -

otiose -

faineant -

slugabed -

lotophagous -

wastrel -

lubberland -

oscitancy -

foolscap -

litherly -

lotus-eater -

rumpus mcfowl -

gepids -

ocellus -

iridic -

prate -

collyrium -

kohl -

lore -

stemma -

aphanite -

emmetropia -

skiascope -

supraorbital -

trachoma -

sciera -

abducens nerve -

hygrophthalmic -

isometropia -

oculist -

oculomotor -

pupillary -

anisometropia -

fundus -

dacryops -

marguerite -

opthalmoscopy -

strabotomy -

trochlear nerve -

albuginea -

buphthalmia -

chromoptometer -

dextrocular -

eesome -

lagophthalmos -

leucoma -

megascopic -

musth -

oculiform -

ommateum -

selenium cell -

trice -

winker -

hemianopsia -

ocelleated -

acorea -

anisocoria -

bonnie -

chrysoberyl -

een -

episcleritis -

dolerite -

eyeglance -

garrot -

germander -

hordeolum -

house dick -

invigilate -

iridoncus -

jettatura -

leukoma -

nasal canthus -

ocul -

oculus dexter -

oculus sinister -

orthochromatic -

phakic -

pigsney

postorbital -

rabbiteye -

rattlewings -

retinene -

retrolental -

scintillation -

sekhet -

shuts -

stian -

strale -

synizesis -

temporal canthus -

uveas -

uveous -

yghe -

ocular -

canthus -

saccade -

amaurosis -

mydriasis -

chatoyant -

choroid -

strabismus -

aegilops -

ciliary - adjective. Biology. of, relating to, or involving cilia 2. Anatomy. of or relating to the eyelashes or eyelids



retinitis pigmentosa - noun. Medicine. a chronic hereditary eye disease characterized by black pigmentation and gradual degeneration of the retina

synechia - noun. Medicine. an eye condition where the iris adheres to either the cornea or lens. Synechia can be caused by ocular trauma, iritis, or iridocyclitis, and may lead to certain types of glaucoma. It is sometimes visible on careful examination but usually more easily through an opthalmoscope or slit-lamp.

synoptophore - noun. Medicine. a test for binocular vision.

recumbent - adjective. (esp. of a person or human figure) lying down ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: from Latin recumbent- 'reclining,' from the verb recumbre, from re- 'back' + a verb related to cubare 'to lie.'

descry - verb. poetic/literary. catch sight of ORIGIN: Middle English : perhaps confused with obsolete descry 'describe,' variant of obsolete descrive(via Old French from Latin describere 'write down'), which also had the meaning [perceive]

epicanthus - noun. Biology. a vertical fold of skin over the nasal canthus; normal for Mongolian peoples; sometimes occurs in Down's syndrome.

lacrimal bone - none. Biology. small fragile bone making up part of the front inner walls of each eye socket and providing room for the passage of the lacrimal ducts

muscae volitantes - noun. Biology. Dark specks appearing to float before the eyes, generally caused by particles in the vitreous humor of the eye.

nystagmus - noun. rapid involuntary movements of the eye

op art - noun. a form of abstract art that gives the illusion of movement by the precise use of pattern and color, or in which conflicting patterns are used

spiracle - noun. Biology. An external respiratory opening, esp. each of a number of pores on the body of an insect, or each of a pair of vestigial gill slits.

cilia - noun. Biology & Anatomy. a short, microscopic, hairlike vibrating structure. Cilia occur in large numbers on the surface of certain cells, either causing currents in the surrounding fluid, or, in some protozoans and other small organisms, providing propulsion. ORIGIN: early 18th cent.: eyelash from Latin

dioptometer -

epiphora - noun. Medicine. excessive watering of the eye

epistrophe - noun. Rhetoric. the repetition of a word at the end of successive clauses or sentences: Example. this nation under God, shall have a new birth of freedom- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from this Earth.- Abraham Lincoln Gettysburg Address

hilum - noun. Botany. the scar on a seed marking the point of attachment to its seed vessel. ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: from Latin, literally 'little thing, trifle', once thought to mean, 'that which sticks to a bean', hence the current sense.

nauplius - noun. Zoology. the first larval stage of many crustaceans, having an unsegmented body and a single eye.ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: from Latin, denoting a kind of shellfish, or from the Greek name Nauplios, the son of Poseidon

presbyopia - noun. farsightedness caused by loss of elasticity of the lens of the eye, occurring typically in middle and old age

trichiasis - noun. Medicine. ingrowth or introversion of the eyelashes

animalcule - noun. archaic. a microscopic animal; Amoeba, called Proteus animalcule, Noctiluca, commonly called the 'Sea Sparkles'

anomalops - noun. Zoology. A fish having a luminous organ beneath the eyel; of warm waters of the the Western Pacific and Puerto Rico; also called the Flashing Fish

anopsia - noun. Medicine. An anopsis or anopia is a defect of the visual field.

interdigitate - verb. (of two or more things) interlock like the fingers of two clasped hands

adactylous -

dactylonomy -

digitate - adjective. shaped like a spread hand

athetosis -

dactylitis -

phalanx -

thrum - verb. make a continuous rhythmic humming sound

chiragra -

chary - adjective. cautious; wary

imparidigitate -

polydactyl - noun. a condition in which a person or animal has more than five fingers or toes on one, or on each, hand or foot

tridactyl - adjective. Zoology. (of a vertebrate limb) having three toes or fingers

palmar -

volar -

pronation -

chiromancy -

palmistry -

supinate -

pronate - verb. put or hold (a hand, foot, or limb) with the palm or sole turned downward; walk or run with most of the weight on the outside of the feet

pandy -

lumbricalis -

thenal -

hypothenar -

appaume -

johrei -

trowel -

jupati -

spanner -

rounce -

ansate -

paum -

palmyra -

raffia -

thenar -

pilfer -

carnauba -

talipot -

calamus -

gomuti -

lontar -

babassu -

caranda -

adactylia -

adactyly -

bidigitate -

brachydactylia -

digitipartite -

hexadactylous -

purificator -

thrip - noun. a minute black-winged insect that sucks plant sap and can be a serious pest of ornamental and food plants when present in large numbers

palmate - adjective. Botany & Zoology. (of a leaf) having several lobes(typically 5-7) whose midribs all radiate from one point; (of an antler) in which the angles between the tines are partly filled in to form a broad flat surface, as in fallow deer and moose- web footed.

pilliwinks - noun. (also called the thumbscrew) is a torture instrument which was first used in medieval europe. It is a simple vice, sometimes with protruding studs on the interior surfaces. The victim's thumbs or fingers were placed in the vice and slowly crushed. The thumbscrew was also applied to crush prisoners' big toes. The crushing bars were sometimes lined with sharp metal points to puncture the nails and inflict greater pain in the nail beds. Larger, heavier devices based on the same design principle were applied to crush knees and elbows.

pillion - noun. a seat for a passenger behind a motorcyclist 2. historical. a woman's light saddle 3. historical. a cushion attached to the back of a saddle for an additional passenger: a ride pillion.

curlew - noun. Zoology. The curlews, genus Numenius, are a group of eight species of birds, characterized by long, slender, down curved bills, and mottled brown plumage. They are one of the most ancient lineages of scolopacid waders, together with the godwits which look similar but have straight bills. In Europe "curlew" usually refers to one species, the Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata.

scolopacid -

godwits -

arcus senilis - noun. Medical. a whitish deposit in the shape of an arc that is sometimes seen in the cornea

bodkin - noun. a blunt thick needle with a large eye used esp. for drawing tape or cord through a hem; a small pointed instrument used to pierce cloth or leather

awl - noun. a small pointed tool used for piercing holes esp. in leather

bradawl - noun. a hand boring tool similar to a small, sharpened, screwdriver

bonny - adjective. attractive; beautiful

anomalous - adjective. deviating from what is standard, normal, or expected

bouge - adjective. deviating from what is standard, normal, or expected.

Canal of Schlemm - noun. Biology. also scleral venous sinus, is a circular channel in the eye that collects aqueous humor from the anterior chamber and delivers it into the bloodstream via the anterior ciliary veins.

choroid coat - noun. Biology. the vascular layer of the eye, containing connective tissue, and lying between the retina and the sclera. The human choroid is thickest at the far extreme  rear of the eye (at 0.2 mm), while in the outlying areas it narrows to 0.1 mm. The choroid provides oxygen and nourishment to the outer layers of the retina. Along with the ciliary body and iris, the choroid forms the uveal tract.

comely - adjective. (typically of a woman) pleasant to look at; attractive.

corneule - noun. Biology. One of the corneas of a compound eye in the invertebrates.

conspectuity - noun. Medical. The faculty of seeing; sight; eye

dioptre - noun. Medical. a unit of measurement of the optical power of a lens or curved mirror, which is equal to the reciprocal of the focal length measured in metres (that is, 1/metres(. It is thus a unit of reciprocal length. For example, a 3-dioptre lens brings parallel rays of light to focus at 1/3 metre. The same unit is also sometimes used for other reciprocals of distance, particularly radii of curvature and the vergence of optical beams. The usage was proposed by French ophthalmologist Ferdinand Monoyer in 1872, based on earlier use of the term dioptrice by Johannes Kepler.

vergence - noun. the simultaneous movement of both eyes in opposite directions to obtain or maintain single binocular vision.

dittography - noun. a mistaken repetition of a letter, word, or phrase by a copyist. ORIGIN: late 19th cent.: from Greek dittos 'double'

emmetropic - noun. Rhetoric. the state of vision where an object at infinity is in sharp focus with the eye lens in a neutral or relaxed state.  ORIGIN: from Greek, emmetros, "well proportioned."

encauma - noun. Medicine. An ulcer in the eye, upon the cornea, which causes the loss of the humors.

enucleate - verb. Biology. to remove the nucleus from a cell; surgically remove (a tumor or gland, or the eyeball) intact from its surrounding capsule ORIGIN: mid 16th cent.: (in the sense [clarify, explain]): from Latin enucleat- 'extracted, made clear,' from the verb enucleare, from e- (variant of ex-) 'out of' + nucleus 'kernel'

exteroceptor - noun. a sensory receptor that receives external stimuli

fovea - noun. a small depression in the retina of the eye where visual acuity is highest. The center of the field of vision focused in this region

frontispiece - noun. an illustration facing the title of a book; Architecture. the principal face of a building ORIGIN: late 16th cent.: from French frontispiece or Latin frontispicium 'facade,' from Latin frons- 'front' + specere 'to look' The change in the ending (early in the word's history) was by association with piece.

gouger - noun. informal. a person whom gouges one's eyes out; overcharge; swindle

haemophtalmia - noun. Medical. congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding; usually affects males is transmitted from mother to son

hypermetropy - noun. the enlargement of an organ or tissue from the increase in size of its cells.

hyphema - noun. Medical. bleeding into the interior of the eye.

iodopsin - noun. a violet photopigment in the retinal cones of the eyes of most vertebrates; plays a role in daylight vision

keratectasia - noun. Medical. abnormal bulging of the cornea of the eye.

keratoiritis - noun. inflammation of the cornea and the iris of the eye

keratoscleritits - noun. Medical. Inflammation of the cornea and the sclera of the eye.

scleritis - noun. Anatomy. the white outer layer of the eyeball. At the front of the eye it is continuous with the cornea.

kerato - noun. Rhetoric. prefix indicating the cornea of the eye

lunette - noun. something crescent-shaped in particular; Christian. a holder for the consecrated host in a monstrance

mala - noun. a locality and the seat of Mala Municipality in Vasterbotten County, Sweden with 2,089 inhabitants in 2005

malar bone - noun. Biology. Cheekbone; the arch of the bone beneath the eye that forms the prominence of the cheek

mongolism - noun. Offensive. down syndrome

moon blindness - noun. recurrent inflammation of a horse's eye, often resulting in eventual blindness. Also called mooneye

mydriatic drug - noun. a drug that causes the pupil of the eye to dilate; used to aid in eye examinations

neomycin - noun. a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced from strains of the actinomycete Streptomyces fradiae and used especially in the form of its sulfate as an intestinal antiseptic in surgery

nervus oculomotorius - noun. Biology. supplies extrinsic muscles of the eye

nyctalopia - noun. Medical. the inability to see in dim light or at night

oculonasal - noun. Biology. pertaining to the eyes and nose

opacify - verb. make opaque

opsablepria - noun. The inability to look someone is the eyes, or not looking into another person's eyes

phorometer - noun. Medical. an instrument for detecting and measuring imbalance in the extrinsic muscles of the eye

photalgia - noun. Medical. pain in the eye resulting from exposure to bright light

physostigmine - noun. Chemistry. a cholinergic alkaloid usually obtained from dried ripe seed of Calabar bean, used as a topical miotic and to reverse the central nervous system effects of an overdosage of anticholinergic drugs; used in the form of the salicylate and sulfate salts

Calabar Bean - noun. the poisonous seed of a tropical West African climbing plant, containing physostigmine and formerly used for tribal ordeals

physostigmine - noun. Chemistry. a compound that is the active ingredient of the Calabar bean and is used medicinally in eye drops because of its anticholinergic activity

anticholinergic - adjective. Medicine. (chiefly of a drug) inhibiting the physiological action of acetylcholine, esp. as a neurotransmitter

acetylcholine - noun. Biochemistry. an organic, polyatomic cation that acts as a neurotransmitter in both the peripheral nervous system(PNS) and central nervous system(CNS) in many organisms including humans. It is an ester of acetic acid and choline, with chemical formula CH3COO(CH2)2N+(CH3)3 and systematic name 2-acetoxy-N2N2N-trimethylethanaminium.

esther - noun. Chemistry. an organic compound made by replacing the hydrogen of an acid by an alkyl or other organic group. Many naturally occurring fats and essential oils are esters of fatty acids. ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.L from German, probably from a blend of Essig 'vinegar' and Ather 'ether.'

acetic acid - noun. Biochemistry. a colorless liquid that when undiluted is also called glacial acetic acid. Acetic acid is the main component of vinegar(apart from water). Although classified as a weak acid, concentrated acetic acid is corrosive, and attacks the skin. Acetic acid is one of the simplest carboxylic acids. It is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical, mainly used in the production of cellulose acetate mainly for photographic film and polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, as well as synthetic fibers and fabrics.

choline - noun. Biochemistry. a water-soluble essential nutrient. It is usually grouped with the B-complex vitamins. Choline is the precursor molecule for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is involved in many functions including memory and muscle control

porphyropsin - noun. Biochemistry. the photoreceptor proteins found in the cone cells of the retina that are the basis of color vision. Iodopsins are very close analogs of the visual purple rhodopsin that is used in night vision. Iodopsins consist of a protein called photopsin and a bound chromophore, retinal.

beleth - noun. Demonology. Beleth also spelled Bilet, Bileth, Byleth and Bilith is a mighty and terrible king of hell, who has eighty-five legions of demons under his command. He rides a pale horse, and all kinds of music is heard before him, according to most authors on demonology and the most known grimoires. According to Pseudomonarchia Daemonum Ham, Noah's son, was the first in invoking him after the flood, and wrote a book on Mathematics with his help.

When appearing he looks very fierce to frighten the conjurer or to see if he is courageous. The conjurer must be brave, and holding a hazel wand in his hand must draw a triangle by striking towards the South, East, and upwards, then commanding Beleth into it by means of some conjurations.

amaymon - noun. Demonology. A prince of hell, and according to some grimoires, the only one who has power over Asmodai. A curious characteristic of this spirit is shown during the Evocation of Asmodai to visible appearance, when the Exorcist must stand upright with his Cap or Headdress removed in a show of respect; for if he does not it is Amymon who will deceive him and doom all his work.

grimoires - noun. a book of magic spells and invocations ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: French, alteration of grammaire 'grammar'

caruncula - noun. Biology. an outgrowth on a plant or animal such as a fowl's wattle or protuberance near the hilum of certain seeds

coenesthesis - noun. Physiology. Common sensation or general sensibility, as distinguished from the special sensations which are located in, ascribed to, separate organs, as the eye and ear

ganglionic - noun. Anatomy. a structure containing a number of nerve cell bodies, typically linked by synapses, and often forming a swelling on a nerve fiber; Medicine. an abnormal benign swelling on a tendon sheath

Hyoscyamine - a tropane alkaloid. It is a secondary metabolite found in certain plants of the Solanaceae family, including henbane, mandrake, jimson weed, tomato, and deadly nightshade. It is the levorotary isomer of atropine (third of the three major nightshade alkaloids) and thus sometimes known as levo-atropine. Hyoscyamine should not be confused with hyoscine, an older alternate name for the related nightshade-derived anticholinergic scopolamine for which it is the precursor

Brand names for hyoscyamine include: Symax, HyoMax, Anaspaz, Egazil, Buwecon, Cystospaz, Levsin, Levbid, Levsinex, Donnamar, NuLev, Spacol T/S, and Neoquess.

Pharmacology

Hyoscyamine is an antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (antimuscarinic). It blocks the action of acetylcholine at parasympathetic sites in sweat glands, salivary glands, stomach secretions, heart muscle, sinoatrial node, smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal tract, and the central nervous system. It increases cardiac output and heart rate, lowers blood pressure, dries secretions. It may antagonize seretonin. At comparable doses, hyoscyamine has 98 percent of the antcholinergic power of atropine. The other major belladonna-derived drug scopolamine has 92 percent of the antimuscarinic potency of atropine.

enorthotrope -

ethmoid -

naphazoline - noun. Chemistry. (in the hydrochloride from) is the common name for 2-1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-2-imidazoline hydrochloride. It is a sympathomimetic agent with marked alpha adrenergic activity. It is a vasoconstrictor with a rapid action in reducing swelling when applied to the mucous membrane. It acts on alpha-receptors in the arterioles of the conjunctive to produce constriction, resulting in decreased congestion. It is an active ingredient in several over-the-counter formulations including Clear Eyes and Naphcon eye drops.

sympathomimetic -

alpha adrenergic -

vasoconstrictor -

arterioles -

conjunctive -

privine -

comet hyakutake -



esotropia - noun. is a condition of the eyes where both eyes turn inward, this can also be called "lazy eye"

amblyopia -

lurdan - noun. an idle or incompetent person ORIGIN: Middle English : from Old French lourdin  from lourd 'heavy', 'lort 'foolish' from Latin luridus 'lurid'

lither - adjective. (esp. of a person) thin, supple, and graceful

presbyope - noun. a person affected with presbyopia; some who is farsighted resulting from the progressive loss with aging of the elasticity of the crystalline lens.

myope - noun. a person who is affected with myopia; myopia is a condition of the eye in which parallel rays are focused in front of the retina, objects being seen distinctly only when near to the eye; nearsightedness.

ametropic - noun. faulty fraction of light rays by the eyes; as in astigmatism or myopia ORIGIN: 1875080; < Greek ametr(os) 'unmeasured'

filmic - adjective. of, pertaining to, or characteristic of motion pictures; containing characteristics resembling those of motion pictures

hyperope - noun. a person who is farsighted

devenustate - verb. to deprive of beauty or grace ORIGIN: Latin venustus 'lovely, graceful.'

philocaly - noun. the love of beauty

philocalist - noun. a person who loves beauty

miscoscopist

gracility

melastomaceae

perrault

quainti­se

sewell

vashti

tiaras

bellibone

houri

junoesque

abishag
­
adonic

aengus

amaryllis

argus

arianrod

baldr

baldur

beryl­

branwen - noun. Mythology. Daughter of Llyr is a major character in the second branch of the Mabinogi, which is sometimes called the Mabinogi of Branwen after her. She is married to the King of Ireland but the marriage does not bring peace.

campanula

callipygian

chalciuhtlicue - noun. archaic. An Aztec goddess whose jade skirts represented her protection of lakes and streams. Literally, "She who wears Jade skirts."

claytonia

cliodhna

crinum

critic

deodar

eclogite

­erzulie

florin

freya

gladiolus

hebe

herodias

homna

honiton­ lace - noun. A type of lace which originates from Honiton, a civil parish in East Devon, Devon South West England. This lace is known for its intense beauty

hypallage

jaipur

kolkwitzia - noun. Chinese genus of one species: Beauty fish.

kyrenia - noun. a town on the northern coast of Cyprus, noted for its historic harbour and castle internationally.

lada and lado

appellant

puckishly

specious

zingy - adjective. zest, zesty, lively, exciting

bathythermograph - noun. oceanography. an instrument that makes a record of the temperature at various depths in the ocean.

culdoscope

proctoscope

rutherford atom

langtry

merle

opah

oschun

nt

oengus - noun. Irish Mythology. a member of the Tuatha De Danann and probably a god of love, youth, and poetic inspiration.

occidental

paragon

portulacaceous

qatrin

rhododendron

rock­ of cashel

roseate

sasin

tripura sundari

ull

ullr

uma

verbena

xochipilli

zaria

actaeon

bis­houjo

bishounen

blakeney

brolga

cannock

cassiopeia

gisborne­

gower peninsula

hooverphonic

lakshmi

lilith fair

minnesinger

philyra

samy

scripophily

silmaril

tezcatli­poca

Thetis - noun. Greek Mythology. a sea nymph, mother of Achilles.

verbenaceous

yarra valley

farinelli

rubiaceous

naomi

chromophore -

photopsin -

rhodopsin -

praesepe -

reeve -

sclerotal -

sclerotomy -

talion -

uniocular -

uranus -

abducens -

adonis -

alastor moody -

aldebaran -

alrai -

ambloyopy -

analemma -

araneous -

blepharospasm -

china pink -

choroid vein -

curette -

cycloplegia -

dianthus chinensis -

diapsid -

doucker -

egilopical -

electrooculogram -

epidemic encephalitis -

instil -

iridotomy -

keratonyxis -

kochab -

lacrimal artery -

lanius lucovicianus -

lecherous -

leucoscope -

lidless -

lunda cirrhata -

omatidia -

palpebra -

pedunculated -

photoblepharon palpebratus -

protuberant -

pupillage -

purblind -

purpurogenous -

rainbow pink -

rhodopsin -

saccadic masking -

scotomy -

sphenoid -

spoor -

the lady chablis -

the london eye -

upanayanam -

vena vorticosum -

venae sclerales -

whall -

zander -

aldose -

anaglyph -

arges -

balor -

dyspnea - noun. Medicine. difficult or labored breathing ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: via Latin from Greek duspnoia, from dus- 'difficult' + pnoe 'breathing.'

strake - n. a continuous line of planking or plates from the stem to the stern of a ship or boat 2. a protruding ridge fitted to an aircraft or other structure to improve aerodynamic stability ORIGIN: Middle English : from Anglo-Latin stracus straca; probably from the Germanic base of the verb STRETCH.

Dance and Saudi Arabia

balletomane - noun. a ballet enthusiast

danseur - noun. a male ballet dancer

danseuse - noun. a female ballet dancer

balletic - adjective. of, relating to, or characteristic of ballet

arabesque - noun. 1. an ornamental design consisting of intertwined flowing lines, originally found in Arabic or Moorish decoration : [as adj.] arabesque scrolls. Music. a passage or composition with fanciful ornamentation of the melody. 2. Ballet. a posture in which the body is supported on one leg, with the other leg extended horizontally backward. ORIGIN: mid 17th cent. : from French, from Italian arabesco 'in the Arabic style,' from arabo 'Arab.'

figurant - noun. a supernumerary actor

supernumerary - adjective. present in excess of the normal or requisite number, in particular. (of a person) not belonging to a regular staff but engaged for extra work; not wanted or needed, redundant. Botany & Zoology. denoting structure or organ occurring in addition to the normal ones (of an actor) appearing on stage but not speaking. ORIGIN: early 17th cent. : from late Latin supernumerarius '(soldier) added to a legion after it is complete,' from Latin super numerum 'beyond the number.'

glissade - noun. 1. a way of sliding down a steep slope of snow or ice, typically on the feet with the support of an ice ax. 2. Ballet. a movement, typically used as a joining step, in which one leg is brushed outward from the body, which then takes the weight while the second leg is brushed in to meet it. ORIGIN: mid 19th cent. : French, from glisser 'to slip,  slide.'

pas - noun. a step in dancing, esp. in classical ballet. ORIGIN: French.

diaghilev - Diaghilev, Sergei (Pavlovich) 1872-1929), Russian ballet impresario. In 1909, he formed the Ballets Russes, which he directed until his death.

chasse - noun. a gliding step in dancing in which one foot displaces the other.

maillot - noun. 1. a pair of tights worn for dancing or gymnastics; a woman's tight-fitting one-piece swimsuit. 2. a jersey or top, esp. worn in sports such as cycling

pas de deux - noun. a dance for two people, typically a man and a woman. ORIGIN: French, literally, 'step of two.'

Rambert Dance Company - a leading British Dance company. Formed at the start of the 20th century as a classical ballet company, it exerted a great deal of influence on the development of dance in the United Kingdom, and today, as a contemporary dance company, continues to be on the world's most renowned dance companies. It has previously been known as the Ballet Club, and the Ballet Rambert.

sashay - verb. [ intrans. ] informal. 1. [with adverbial direction] walk in an ostentatious yet casual manner, typically with exaggerated movements of the hips and shoulders. 2. perform the sashay.

Ansermet - Ernest Alexandre Ansermet, November 11, 1883-February 20, 1969, was a Swiss Conductor.

batterie - noun. Ballet. the action of beating or crossing the feet or calves together during a leap or jump. ORIGIN: early 18th cent.: French, literally 'beating.'

cabriole - noun. Ballet. a jump in which one leg is extended into the air forward or backward, the other is brought up to meet it, and the dancer lands on the second foot. ORIGIN: French, literally 'light leap,' from cabrioler (earlier caprioler), from Italian capriolare 'to leap in the air.'

coryphee - noun. a leading dancer in a corps de ballet

dallapiccola - Luigi Dallapiccola, February 3, 1904 - February 19, 1975, was an Italian composer known for his lyrical twelve-tone compositions.

entrechats - noun. Ballet. a vertical jump during which the dancer repeatedly crosses the feet and beats them together

frappe - adjective. [postpositive] Ballet. (of a position) involving a beating action of the toe of one foot against the ankle of the supporting leg. ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: French, literally 'struck.'

jete - noun. Ballet. a jump in which the dancer springs from one foot to land on the other with one leg extended outward from the body while in the air

grand jete - noun. Ballet. a jump in which the dancer springs from one foot to land on the other with one leg froward of their body and the other stretched backward while in the air

petite jete - noun. Ballet. a jump in which a dancer brushes one leg out to the side in the air then brings it back in again and lands on it with the other leg lifted and bent behind the body.

Kirov - Vyatka, an industrial town in western Russia, in the central part of European Russia, on the Vyatka River; pop. 487,000. Former name(1932-92) Kirov.

pas de quatre - noun. a dance for four people

pas de trois - noun. a dance for three people

pas seul - noun. a dance for one person

repetiteur - noun. a tutor or coach of ballet dancers or musicians, esp. opera singers

Rudolf Nureyev - (b. 1939-93), Austrian ballet dancer and choreographer, born in Russia. He defected to the West in 1961 and joined the Royal Ballet in London, where he began his noted partnership with Margot Fonteyn.

Margot Fonteyn - Dame Margot Fonteyn (b. 1919-91), English ballet dancer; born Margaret Hookham. In 1962, she began a partnership with Rudolf Nureyev, dancing with him in Giselle and Romeo and Juliet.

Galina Ulanova - (b. January 8, 1910 - March 21, 1998) - Soviet Russian ballet dancer. She is frequently cites as being on the greatest 20th century ballerinas. Ulanova studied in Petrograd under Agrippina Vaganova and her own mother, a ballerina of the Imperial Russian Ballet. When she joined the Mariinsky Theatre in 1928, the press found in her "much of Semyonova's style, grace, the same exceptional plasticity and a sort of captivating modesty in her gestures." They say that Konstantin Stanislavsky, fascinated with her acting style, implored her to take part in his stage productions. In 1944, when her fame reached Joseph Stalin, he had her transferred to the Bolshoi Theatre, where she would be the prima ballerina assoluta for 16 years. The following year, she danced the title role in the world premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's Cinderella.

Petrograd -

Agrippina Vaganova -

Imperial Russian Ballet -

Mariinsky Theatre -

Semyonova -

Konstantin Stanislavsky

barre -

divertissement -

entrechat -

impresario -

fokine -

labanotation -

massine -

plie -

tulle -

acro -

adagio -

agon -

auric -

ballon -

battement -

bharat natyam  -

chass -

coryph -

evoe -

gayane -

gilet -

haunt -

helpmann -

ixia -

khachaturian -

lithe -

nijinsky -

odile -

ondine -

overture -

pavlova -

poulenc -

spandau ballet -

bitonality -

esbjerg -

medina -

mecca -

hejaz -

riyadh -

asir -

riyal -

nejd -

taif -

al hasa -

jidda -

jeddah -

bahrain -

najd -

fahd -

tabuk -

wahhabi -

al hufuf -

nandos -

emirate -

The Kingdom -

Samri -

miosis -

pecten -

becket -

oculomotor nerve -

cerastes -

dextral -

tapetum -

trochlea -

atropine -

oeillade -

aniseikonia -

entoptic -

iridology -

macula -

macula lutea -

ommatidium -

sclerotic -

uvea -

zygomatic bone -

albugo -

ciliary body -

ethmoid -

filar -

dictionary wordlist list lists word words definition definitions wordplay play fun game paragraph language english chicago loveofwords languagelove love beauty peace yew mew sheep colors curiosity logolepsy

entablature archetypal wrangle arguable arraign arrest ascribe arsenal article artificial artisan ascension austere askance obliquely aspire assail assault assay assert diligence obsequious assimilate stigma perspicacious astute asunder atman atrium attrition intrepid autonomous avarice avert avocation azimuth azure abbreviate aberrant abhorrent relinquish loathe abstinence abstention  abysmal accelerate accordance accoutrement accrue exasperate acquaintance baccalaureate bacillus backbite baggage ballistic baluster bandolier banister barrage barranca barrier bartizan basilica bastion batholiths bathyscaphe battalion batten battle bauble bawdy beastly bestial beckon beacon bazaar bizarre Bedouin beguile behavior beleaguer belligerent belvedere berserk beseech bewilder bezant bicker bigamy bight bilk billet billiard billow biogenic biscuit bivouac blatancy blizzard bodacious boggle bollix bombardier boudoir bouquet butte boutique bower brassier mesa breach breech brochure brogue brooch broach bruise brusque buccaneer buffoon bureau buttress buxom caffeine cauldron calisthenics calligraphy callous camouflage campaign campanile cannery cannibal canny cantaloupe cantankerous cantilever capacity capillary capricious carbohydrate caricature carnivorous carouse carriage cartography casserole cassette cataclysm catastrophe cache categorical caterwaul cavalier cauliflower celerity alacrity cellophane cellulose cemetery centennial cereal cerebellum ceremonial cesarean cessation chaff challenge champagne chandelier changeable chaparral charade chargeable chassis chateau chauffer chauvinism Cheshire chiaroscuro chicanery chiffon chigger chrysanthemum cipher circuit citadel clairvoyant clastic clique coalesce coercible coincidental colloquial colossal column combustible communicable community commute complacency compulsory comradery conceit conceal concession confetti conglomerate conjugal connive connoisseur consensus constellation consummate continuity contrivance convalesce convenient convertible convolution copasetic copious corduroy coriolis cornucopia corollary corpse corpuscle correlate correspondent corridor corroborate corrosion corrugate corrupt costume counselor countenance counterfeit courageous courier courtesy covert covetous cranny crease credenza credulity crescent cripple criterion crochet crocodile croissant crotchety crucial cruel cryptic cuddle cuisine cul-de-sac culinary culpable culvert cumbrous cummerbund cunnilingus cunning curare curiosity curtilage curtsy curvaceous custody cylindrical cymbal cynicism cyst dabble daffodil daiquiri damsel dastardly dazzle deceit debilitate debonair debris debutant decency decipher decimate deconcentrate decorum decrepit dedicate defamation defendable defensible deference deficient deficit definitive defoliate delectable deliberate delicatessen delinquent delirious demarcate dementia demolish demure denigrate dentil denunciation deplorable depreciate dereliction derisory derrick descent desirable despair desperate despicable despondent destine deterrent detonate deviance devisal devisor devour dexterous diabolicalness diagnosis dialogue diamond diaphragm diarrhea dichondra dawdle differentia difficulty diffuse dilapidate dilate dilemma diligent dilute diminutive dinghy dinosaur director  dirigible disadvantageous disastrous disperse disciplinary discomfiture discordant discotheque discreet discrete discrepancy disgust disguise dishevel dispersal dissect dissention dissertation dissident dissipate dissolve dissonant distillate distortion distraught disturbance divvy docile docket doctrinal dodder kinky eccentric linguistics domical dominate domineer dominion dossier doubloon douse drawl dreary dubious dulcet dungeon duodenum duress dwindle dynamism dynasty ebullition echinoderm eclectic ecliptic economist ecumenism edifice editor educe effervesce efficacious egalitarian elaborate elapsed eerie elegy eligible eliminate elite elixir elongate elucidate elusion eluviation emaciate embarrass embassy embellish embezzle embroidery embryo emissary emollient emphatic enchilada encore encumbrance endeavor endogenous endure engender ensemble enthusiast entourage entrepreneur epaulet epitome erratic erroneous escapade esophagus espionage esplanade etcetera ethereal etiquette eucalyptus eulogy exaggerate exacerbate excellency exhilarate expectant exquisite facetious Fahrenheit fallacy fanion fealty feisty frisky felicitous fenestration ferocious fertile fervent fickle fictitious fiery finesse finial fjord flaccid fledge flippant flirtatious flivver fluctuate follicle forbearance forbiddance forehand forebode forceps forfeit forgo forlorn formidable foundry foyer fracas fraught frivolous frolic frontier funnel copious furrow fuselage fusillade futile forgone frivolity frolic galaxy galleon galoot galore galoshes gambit gangrene ganglion gargantuan gargoyle gardenia garret garrote gasolier gatling gawky gazebo gazelle gazette geezer geisha gendarme generosity genre genteel gentry genuine geodesic geranium gesticulate ghastly giggle gigolo gimmick giraffe gizzard glacier glamour glimmer glimpse glisten glottis gluteus gluttony glyph gnarly gnaw goddess godling gorgeous gorilla gory gossamer gourd gouts gracious gradient granary grandeur granulation grapple gratify gratuitous gregarious grenade committee grievance griffin gristle grotesque gristly grotto grouch groupie grisly grovel grudge gruel gruesome gubernatorial guerrilla guffaw guidable guidon guile guillotine gullet gymnasium gyrate habitable hacienda haggard halibut halitosis hallelujah hallow halyard hammock harangue harass harried hasp hatred haughty hearth hedonism hegira heinous hegemony hemisphere hemophilia hemorrhage herbivorous hereditary heresy heritage heroine hesitate hibiscus hidden hideous hieroglyphic highfalutin high-rise hilarity hippopotamus hoarse holler holocaust holster homicidal horror hosiery hurricane hydrant hydraulic hydronic hyena hygiene hyphen hypnotize hypochondria hypocrisy hypocrite hypotenuse hysteria idiocy igloo ignoramus ignore illicit illiterate illustrate imbecile immaculate immaterial immature immersible immigrant immune impasse impeccable impedance impenetrable impervious imperfect implement implicate implicit important impressible innately inert impression impugn inadequate inanimate inauspicious incandescent incantation incarcerate incentive incinerator inclusion incoercible incompressible incontrovertible controversy indefatigable inconvertible inconvincible incorruptible indices indictment indigent indigestion digestible indignant indiscretion indiscreet indisiplined indiscernible inducible inebriate ineffable inefficacy ineludible inexorable inexpiable inextricable infallible infatuation inferior inflammatory inflexible infuriate inimitable iniquitous infuse infusion ingenuity ingratiate inimical innards innocence innovate innumerable inoculation insatiable insectivorous insincerity insinuation inspection inspirator instability installation insurance insufferable insufficiency insurrection insupportable integrity intellect intelligence intemperance intension interaction interception intercession interdiction interface interference interpolate interrogate interrupt intersperse intervene interstice intractable intergalactic intransigent intravenous intrepid intricate intrigue introductory introject intrude inundate invective invariable invertebrate investigate intuitive invertible investiture inveterate inviable invidious inviolate invigorate invincible invoke invocation invalidate involute invulnerable impregnable ionosphere ipso-facto irascible iridescent eradicable irrational irredeemable irrefragable irrefutable irregular anomalous irrelevant irreproachable irrepressible irresistible irrevocable irreverent irresponsible irritative irrigate irritability isolable isosceles isostasy issuance isthmus italicize iterative itinerary interjection jackass jackhammer jackknife jackpot jackrabbit jaguar jai alai jalopy jalousie jamboree Japanese jacquerie Jacobin jargonize jaunt javelin jealous jehoshaphat jeopardy jocular jouncy journal jubilant jubilee judgment judicature judicious juggernaut jugular juke julep juncture junta jurisprudence juvenilia juxtaposition kahuna kalpa kamikaze kerf kangaroo karat ken katzenjammer katydid kempt kerosene kewpie khaki kibitz kibosh kilter kimono kinesiology kleptomaniac knell knowledge knuckle kook kowtow kulak kyrie labyrinth laccolith laceration lackadaisical laconic lacunar lacquer lagging laissez-faire lamprey languish lanyard lapidary laputan larceny lariat laryngeal larynx lascivious latent latter lattice latrine launderette lavatory laxity lechery legacy bequeath legend leister lei leisure lemming leniency lentic leopard lethal lethargy lettuce leviathan levitate lexical liable levity liaison libation liberate licentious lieutenant ligament lilac limnetic limousine limpid lineage lynchpin lineolate lingerie lingual liniment linoleum liquefy litany literacy lithesome littoral lizard loath local loiter longevous loquacity lottery louver lucidity lucrative ludicrous luminary lummox lurid luscious lyricism machinator machinelike machismo macrocosm besmirched machiavellian mackerel mademoiselle maelstrom maggoty magisterial magnanimous magnifico maintenance malaprop malarkey malediction malamute malicious malign malinger malleable mandarin maneuver mange maniacal mannequin manure manzanita maquette maraca maraschino marauder marbleize marbly marionette marmalade marquee marquetry marrow marshal marshmallow martyr mascara masochism massacre matriarchy maudlin mausoleum maxillary mayonnaise meager meandrous medial medieval megalith mediocre Mediterranean megalomania melancholy melee membrane memorabilia menagerie mercenary mendacity meritorious mesmeric mesquite metallurgy metaphor meticulous metronome metropolitan mezzanine micrometer midriff mien demeanor millennium minarets minion minuscule minutia misanthropic miscellaneous mistletoe moccasin modus operandi monaural mongrel monotony morgue morose morsel moribund mortgage mosaic mosque mosquito motley mottle mucous membrane mucus mullion multifarious munificent museum musketeer mutable mustache mutineer myopic myrmidon mystique naïve narcissism narcosis narrate nausea navigable Neanderthal necklace needle nefarious negligible nemesis neophyte nertsy  nerve-racking nestle nether newfangled nocturnal nonchalant non sequitur normative Norwegian nostalgic nuisance nullify obedient obeisance obelisk obese objectify oblate oblique obliterate oblivious obsess obsolete obsolescence obstacle obstinate occupy occurrence ocelot odious oedipal officiate ogle ogre oligarchy omelet omnificent omniscient ontological argument oodles oomph opaque operable operative opossum optimal orangutan orchard orchestra ordinance oregano orgiastic oriel oriole ornery orphan osculate ostensive ostrich osteology oust overwhelm overwrought oyster pachyderm pacific pageant painstaking palate palaver libel palette pallet palomino pamphleteer panorama pantheism parapet paradigm papier-mâché paraffin paralyze parishioner parliament parody parquetry parsimonious pasteurize pathogenic payola pedophile pediment pendant pendentives penicillin pennant pentathlon perception percussion perennial parameter perimeter peripheral peristalsis permissible pernicious perron perseverance persistent persona persnickety personnel persuasion petite pertinacious pessimistic pestilent pestle petticoat petulant phallus phantasmagoria pharaoh pharmaceutical peasant philander phenomenal philosopher phlegm phoenix phooey phosphoresce physique picayune picturesque piety pilfer finagle pilaster pillage pineapple pinnacle piquant pique piteous pitiful pittance pizzazz placate placenta plagiarism plaintiff plateau platypus plausible plinth plunderous pluvial poinsettia pollutant polygamy pommel ponderous portico portiere portentous prairie precipitous predecessor predicate predilection preeminent preempt preferential premier preparation preposition prerogative presumption pretentious preternatural privilege proclivity prodigious proffer progenitor progeny promissory promontory propellant propensity propound proselyte prospectus protégé protocol protuberant pseudonym  ptomaine pulchritudinous pursuant pygmy pylon python qualm quarrel quarry quash queer quell querulous quibble quitter quixotic rabbet rabbit rabbi radiant rambunctious rancor rankle raspberry rethink rebellion recant recital reconcile redundant referral reglet relevant reluctant remiss reminiscent remnant rendezvous renegade repartee reprieve repertoire repetitious reprehensive reprisal repugnant rescind reservoir resistant resurgence resurrect revelry reverie retaliate reticent retrieve retrograde reveille reverberation reversible reversion rhapsody rhetoric rheumatism rhinoceros rhinoceri rhubarb ribaldry ricochet riddance rigmarole risqué rive rollick Romanesque Rosicrucian rotisserie rotunda rogue roulette rubato ruminate rusticate sabotage sabbat saboteur sacrilege sadomasochist salacious salmon salutatory samurai sapphire sarcasm sarcophagus sardonic sarsaparilla sassafras sassy satiate satirical saturate saunter savoir-faire savvy scabbard scaffold scalawag scarcity scathe scenario scenic schism sciatic nerve scrotum scintillate scissor scourge scrawny scrimmage scribble scruffy scrounge scrumptious scrunch scrupulous scrutiny scurry scythe sedition seethe seismic self-applause seltzer semiporcelain seniority sensible sensual separate sepulcher sequel sequin sequoia serape serenade sheaves serendipity  servant settee shabby shackle shanghai shanty shellac shenanigan Sherlock shirk shish kebob shoulder shrapnel shriek shrubbery shtick shush shyster Siamese sibyl significant simile simplicity simultaneous sinewy siphon skeptic skiff skillet skirmish skullduggery slaughter sleazy sleeve sleuth slither slough sluice smart aleck  smidgen  smithereens  smolder  smorgasbord snazzy sneer snide snivel snorkel sobriety socioeconomic sojourn solder soldier solemn solicit soluble solvent sombrero somersault soothe soprano sophisticate sophomore sortie soufflé sousaphone souse spiel souvenir sovereign spaghetti spandrel sparrow spatter sphinx spatula species specific spectacle spectral spelt sphincter spinach spinneret spiritual splatter splitting splurge spry  splutter sporadic sprawl sprinkler spree sprightly squawk spurious sputter  squabble squalor squander squeak squeal squeamish squeeze squiggle squinch squirrel stable squoosh stabilizer stagnant stagnate stalactite stalagmite stammer stampede stationary stationery statue statuesque statute staunch stealthy stein stellar stench stencil stoic steppe sterile stickler stifle stimulant stingy stirrup stolid strafe straggle strangulate stratagem strategy strenuous stretch strident stringent strudel streusel strychnine studious stultify stupe stupefy stupendous special stylus stymie styptic sublimate subliminal submergible substitute submersible subpoena subsequent subsidiary substantiate suburb subversion success succession succinct succor succulent succumb sufferance suffocate suggest suicidal sully sultry sumptuous sundae sundry superfluous superior supersede superstitious surreal supplicate surrender surrogate survey surveillance suspension suspicion sustenance swarthy swastika swath swear sweaty swelter swerve swindle swivel swizzle sycamore syllable symphony symposium symptom syndicate syndrome synonym synonymous synopsis synthetic syphilis syringe syrup suffrage tableau tabloid tacit tambourine tandem tangible tarantula tarot taunt technique telekinesis temperamental temperance thence temporal temporary tenuous tequila terrace terrain terrific terrify tetanus tether thatch thistle thither through though throat throttle thwack thwart ticklish tiffany timbre tirade titillate toboggan tolerant tongue top-notch topography  tortoise trauma tortuous torturous tourist tracery tournament tourniquet trachea traffic tragedy tragic traipse traitor tranquility transcend travesty transcribe treachery treatise trellis trepidation trestle trinket triplicate triumphant trivial troglodyte troubadour  trousers truncate tumultuous tundra turbid turpitude turquoise tutelage twixt twiddle twitter tycoon tyke typhoon tyrannical tyrannize tyranny umbrella unfulfilled unanimous usury undulate unequivocally unguent urethra unprecedented unscrupulous untenable unwieldy utterance vaccinate vagary valance valiant vandal variety vehement veldt veneer vendetta venetian vengeance vernacular versatile version vertebra vicinity victual vigilante villain vincible vinyl violate vitality vivacious volition voluminous voluptuous voyeur vulnerable wahine waiver wallaby warble warrant wayfarer weasel wheedle wheezy weird whilst whistle whither whittle whoopee whoopla wistful whither wizen wont worse worst xanadu yowl yucca zephyr zeppelin zucchini extraversion embezzlement euthanasia extortion obscure carousing marauder aptitude ribaldry rigmarole chicanery shenanigans capers antics escapade crafty cunning cleaver connive furtive sneaky stealthy plunderous pillaging usurper pilferous wheedling finagler longevous loquacity derisory deplorable critical decimations tithe cynic frivolity frolic derriere easel emasculate emaciate linguistic depravity berate scold scorn scoff rail rebukeness  brawl vapid hamster spleen sequiter sequacious sequesterous flatulence impressible herbaceous impropriety veneration ignoble fatuous phatic journey acrid pungent fetid fiendness gamut ire irascible graffiti irk tedium diminutive minutia iota iterative reiteration self inductive interpolations objectified interstitial extrapolation trepidation tumultuous tortuous adjunct turpitude salient viable seethe conflagration lexical etymology idolatrous affectionate fondle caress craw swell surge flow flux amorous enamor endear ardent ardor cajole piquant poignant prescient puissant presage apex crux citadel pinnacle vertex vortex matrix climax peak languishing lurid larcenous licentious lascivious squanderous squaloring wallow in the furrow confluence wretched infelicitous trajectory sordid warp strong raw war resume quirkness kinky tinker dink fink stink Twinkie eccentric pinky suit idiomatic cognate somatalogy virtuoso concurrent intemperance obsessive habitual addicts psychosomatic pathological psychopaths diabolically maniacal dementia panoramic tableau tediously meticulous laboriously beleaguering excruciating exacerbation autonomous avarice oscillating ostracism adrenergic analeptic adumbrate obdurate aberrance genocidal xenophobic prospectus personification of sartorial perfection visage picturesque vision of spectral grace picture of positive prosthesis protractive analysis cyborg ebullition ne plus ultra monad cybernetics prognosis prognostication clambering clamorous clangor hectic mayhem pulverize annihilate pompous bombastic query squash squawk squish squirm sprocket squeal squelch staunch statuesque steadfast steep stench stint strategic logistical tactician stratum stolid stoic stodgy viscid tumult stray streaky stretch strenuous striated strident stringent strive structural strut subjugate subjective substratum substantiate subterfuge subvert sultry sulk sundry superlative superfluous superficial syllogism soliloquy superovulation superfluity superfetation superfecundation suspicion swig superstratum sycophant ingratiating surrogate suspension swindle swallow swanky swath swill sympathetic symbolic synapse synchronous syncopate synoptic synectics syndrome synonym syntax systematic larceny lecher oligarchy ribaldry rigmarole intoxicate tangential tectonics tantamount telepathy tantalize throng tactile taint talisman talesman squabble brash torment temerarious terminus thrall torpid torpor torque tousle  traduce transform transubstantiate transpire transmute transmogrify transport trapezium traverse treason tremulous trendy trivia trifles trounce turgor truculent tuft turf turbid turgid tussle twain twang twinge twerp twit twitch tweak racy procedure vernacular posthumous spasmolytic propagate prolific proliferative profusion profundity proliferate profligate cogent fecund secund secular thick trick quick mystical silhouette sojourn excursion genre engender jaunt pilgrimage prophet trek waver wrought waxy waylay weave weary web wedge wench wend whang whet whimsical whir whinny whereupon whish whisk whoosh whizbang whoop whorl wield wile wilco wild whence wingspread wiry wiseacre wherewithal rapacity wolf whistle wrath wraith wrack worship wrest wretch wring wriggle wry shyster shylock phone roan tone zone bone hone loan drone known own moan cone done groan koan gnome dream gleam cream seam beam          team serene ravine green gene careen tellurian terrene quaff query quiescent radishes reciprocate raunchy raspy rascal rampant rampage ravage molest ravish rebuke rebuff rend reave recourse reconnaissance reconnoiter rectify recompense rectitude reconcile regime reintegrate relegate rejuvenate remission remonstrance reparation replication reprieve reprisal nocturnal emission repose remunerate resonant retort revelation revision grandiloquence cleft fissure crevasse rift rill robust rouge niche crack tromp stomp chasm crevice trudge rostrum rout roust row ruckus sagacious salacious sapient satiric sarcastic sartorial sartorius scalawag screed scrutable contemptible scurvy scuttlebutt seditious seduction sect segregant sequacious psychic reverie subterfuge serenade sequiter serendipity shuck shylock sibilant shush signet simulation siren skeptic sleek slick slinky snare snatch sneeze sneer snide smug intrados loquacity spandrel iambic sonorous spatial spatiotemporal telemetry spectral spry spectrum speculate solicitor sprout spoof specular splendiferous sporadic spurt binge spree spunk squalid forte fortitude Gumby emit war  time raw umbrage ultraism ultimatum unary unbridled uncanny unanimous ambiguous biased unabated uncharted articulate deviating undertow congenial feint feign unity predicate unprecedented paradigm unscrupulous brash dire unfathomable unlimited urchin usurp utmost utilize fluctuate vague vacuous vanity vanquish vantage veer vast advent veracity verbatim vertex vortex vertigo vestige vex vigor vitalize virile vicissitude viscous visceral virtuous virulence vital virago vivacious vivid livid splurgeness stag vituperatively vociferous volition void voracity waft vulturine wacky waifs wainscot waive wallah itinerant wand wane lavish wanton wonderlust warrantee warn warp warlock warren wastrel wastage warranty dicker insidiously sinister flagrant verity maniac pack mendacity abscissa ordinate yacht yearn yaw yare yen yelp yin yonder yoni yore yours yolk zany zest zeal  zenith zingy zooid treatise hyperbolic lingam blasphemous farcical fugueness and estranged ensemble orchestration rendition various assorted forms of related stranger weirdness traveling down this obtusely overt contusion in my vehicular contrivance convection convolution abalone absolute acceptance accurately acquiesce acquire actually adamant additional adequately adherence affiliation affinity against aggressive allegiance although allusions amendable analogous analysis anchor ancient animation annihilation appeared approach appropriately archaic assembler assimilation assuage attain attempts attendant attribute audience aura auspicious authoritarian authoritative barbeque before belligerent binary blazing Buddha bulwark carousel ceaselessly ceremony chaos character charisma Christmas chronological cite classification classify clutter cocoon cognation cognizant comment communal complete conceive conceptual conclusion conducive conquered consciousness constituent construction continuum contrarily convenient corporeal collage creates credibility crystalline culture curious curriculum decadent decide deferred deified deity deliberately delineate deluded delusion demagoguery democratically descriptions desire destroy destructively develop dialectic dictates difficult diffuse disappeared ecstasy ecstatic efficiency elaborate elliptical empathy endeavor engaging equipment escape especially essence eventually evolutionally excellence excitement expectorant expedience experience extraneous extremity façade facet fashions fever flatten forgotten frailty framework gapping glimpse grandiose graphically groan growing hedonistically hierarchy hobby holocaust homogenous hovering ideology imagination immaturity immediate imperative impertinence important inadvertency inapplicable indispensable individually infancy initiate innate interpreters intervene intricacy intrinsic irrelevance jagged kaleidoscope lit literally lose ludicrous macabre minstrel meld mischievous model monstrous mores myriad mystic necessity negativity Newtonian normalcy nuance nullify obnoxious obscure obvious occasional officiate ominous omnipotent oppose optimizes oscillating ostracism paradoxically partially participants pebbles perceive pervasive phenomena portrayal posses preceding pretty prevalent pregnant primitive prism processional progress prominent proprietor psychic psychological purpose pyramid quandary rational receptacle recumbent redemption refused reiterate relatively relativity relevant reminiscent renaissance revere schemes schizophrenia separately sequence serious severe socially spontaneous stalwart stimulus stomach struggle stunned succession superimpose supplement suppose surround swimming switch symmetry sync taubla tapestry tenacious tendency tyrant terrestrial torrential totally tomorrow transient turbulence tyrannical ulterior ultimate universally unwarranted vicious weather yankee whether soliloquy amenity ambivalence ameliorate aggrandize aghast agrapha barnacle gerrymander jasper jasmine obfuscate obdurate castigate metaphysique cyborg appliance intrepid intrigue mystique impetus volition gumption motivation inspiration metaphor parable leprechaun leniency secund hefty endogenous exogenous lozenge irrefragable recalcitrance fecund jaded seal ordinand obdurate aberrance ignominious interface consent imbroglio embroilment lethargy impressionism agitator treacherous lurid allure obstreperously abstruse subconscious squanderous squalid anomalous punitive incendiary infrangible extemporaneous incognito (succubus , incubus) incongruous incredulous indemnify indigenous infernal infidel iniquitous secular funky spunky Rosicrucian epicurean phlegm levity levee lubricious loath loathe frigid fuck clitoris lick fenestration dire sleazy brash crass rash aggrandize tactile acuity bridge rude crude bandy randy monad positive indenture obnoxious obtrusive obtusely overt indemnities annuities cavalier dawdling gallivant bought naught fought caught ought dribble rip zip gig blond entropy catalyst cohort cavort chronological sublime purvey pander meandrous extravagant exorbitance kinky vicarious endear eccentric cognate frolic frivolity fawn agnate aggregate junction function conjunction conjecture conjugation adjunct contiguous constituency cohesive coercion covert maestro maitre d mastoid newel minx murk monad muss muggy mull mirador bartizan musky meager demonstrative anarchy iconoclasm misnomer mimicry minaret mimetic monocracy pungent mordant mnemonics mangle maim mutilate mesomerism morpheme nepotism nurture vexation anxiety vindictiveness vendetta moot void null meringue laconic obliterate papaya proboscis podiatry polemist porcupine palindrome pandemonium presumptive procureness ploy prod paltry pander paphian pummel puny presage felicity parley parturient potpourri partisan peccavi verity goad penumbral platitude platonic proxy photic pharos perdurable preemptory posh perfunctory perilymph phoneme phenetic phantom permeate proximity phantasm phalanstry delusory apparition pietism oviparous expiate vindicate extricate  exonerate absolve posthumous prehensile prerogative presumptive prestissimo preterite retroactive primacy prevaricate equivocate primordium primeval puissance  pristine prescience prompt prodigious protagonist prurient pyre lurid pshaw guffaw purlin purloin quirk pith quark kinky tip put temerarious userp asymptote pirate tiny hat  thief tine slow slide slim hide me effigy infinitesimal slink slick paw
flaw craw claw heuristic swum cuckold climb locuna live slut sly smut sequacious expeditious sequesterous glove glaive glade don’t dale  otter glue equestrian gog rift cog gone lean had good gold ride ode sex house pine low law earth tit guilty slime negligent torrentially torrid tortuously tempestuous einzeln function truckness presumptive procureness ploy prod off the line cyborg cylon live antonym exogamous dimorphism pry rap gape homogeny gap dudely cruel incredulity ergo apropos ipso-facto pith tip push where keeky geek peek peep glib jive gawk talk dudely cruel off the line but off it !  pit ego colossal incredible fantastic great outrageous amazing fabulous terrific stupendous splendiferous glorious God grandiose orgiastic magnificent ne plus ultra astounding astonishing bodacious marvelous exuberantly ecstatic subliminal nostalgic allusions subordinate ancillary conjectures similar analogous configurations exotically erotic quixotic render proof orchestration rendition unicorn railway mainsail ebullition monad girdle thigh spasmolytic heuristic sartorious sartorial discrepancy amendment rip reave rive tear rend esoteric erudite beleaguer hype synch torque your ringer occipital sync ubiquitous eucharistic oblation obeisance oblate obelisk ubiquitous edifice erection efficacious salacious lubricious sagacious expeditious grief  orgiastic paroxysmal orthogenesis overture repertoire quagmire quandary poshly plush lushly lustful longevous loquacity hunky-dory harbinger guzzle gyro gyre exult heuristic awkward humph haberdashery hauberk huarache bourgeoisie dichotomy greave zealot goatee cavalier humerus gumption hors d’oeuvres coalescent hysterically delirious coercion nullify correspondence corral coral architrave archaeology ardent ardor arduous awry askew asinine altruistic allure allude alluvium aloof egress effulgence ephemeral apathetic anxiety antonym existential exigency exodus expiate esoteric exacerbate evoke exact exult excerpt exorbitance cajole argent apriori arbitrate appliqué aqueduct presumptuous prestige precocious precursor preempt predilection premises premonition preoccupy preponderance prescient pretentious perineum peristyle perpetuity pervade pertinent portent elicit pursuance putrid quasi queasy quaver quarrel rampart ransack voracious rapport ratchet raucous ravenous reciprocal rectitude emanate imminent perdition erudite erogenous scarp lambent reticent vehement auspicious austere consternation construe contingent convection convolution convenient cocoon coerce collaboration collude vacuum vacillate vestibule vicarious recalcitrant repudiate resend resilient resonance purvey wreak writhe wreath fortuitous fulminate fuscous cudgel futurity gable gallivant gallant embellish gauntlet scavenge scandalous scarify scatter schlieren scholarly scoundrel scowl unmelodious scramble scrabble scraggly craggy cephalic fallacious fallible absurd cutaneous synthesis commission extreme  conscientious adherent proponent subtlety diligent receive interesting abhorred exorbitant arrangement intelligence surprisingly important encompass contributes asymmetrical excellent elliptical collaboration straddled collapsible spanned feasible oriented pervasive artistry instructor precursor innovate adrenergic adumbrate queasy acclimatize accommodate acceptive accordant accrue accusation acrimony actuarial acuity adduce adjective adjunct admonish adroit aerobic aesthetic prosaic affiliate affluence aggravate aggregate agnate agonize airy albeit alchemy allege allegiance allegorical alleviate allocution ambience ambivalence amenity amenable anaclitic analgesia anacrusis analeptic anathema subordinate ancillary anecdotist animism animosity annulet announce anomaly anonymity antagonize antecedent subsequent antefix antenna anterior pathos antipathy antithesis aperture appall adorn pertain appreciate aquifer arbiter arbitrage arboreal frantic pedantic febrile fanatic quixotic hegira to xanadu frenetic zealot zeal eucharistic oblation occipital ubiquitous omnipresence opulent effluent affluence larcenous overture orgiastic paroxysmal ornithology orthogenisis gleam sheen English bird treacherous lecherous asinine dumb foolish stupid inane ignoramus absurd idiotically imbecilic silly unintelligent dense dingy crazy insane quasi slow epos epitomize epochal era gemma schema lemma jargon idiom colloquialism vernaculars peer quay pier pair appearance insipid vapid insidiously insolent pompously bombastic blatant flagrant chaparral epopee pseudopodia actuator militantly mercenary covert adumbrate intimate obfuscate abet abeyance proxy fugue edict advocate détente anticipate angary amentia terse inabsentia expurgation imputation impugn exculpate eugenic euphenics incumbent incipient accidence acoustics acquittance amore malign asperse amok amuck allegorist pervert aspect aorist wrist expiate asylum epigynous anovulant antenatal antidote antiquity antitrust antithetical argufy apartheid apocalyptic apologist apothecary apomixis appreciate aposteriori apostrophe protractive analysis parabola avidity liberty concise tine albeit life still arrogance coherent abandon abate abash abase abdicate abduction abject abominable abominate abomination abound abrogation absolution absorption accentual accession accede accessible accommodate accomplice accomplish accrual accursed acerbity acrimony accredit accustomed actuality actuate addle adamant adjutant adventive adultery adulterate adventure adversity advertent adulteration venturesome advocacy eyrie aerie aerial affix affront aggressive agile acuity tactile nimble agnostic agog agonist aghast avid avarice agrarian curtilage Arian airhead peterbrain alacrity alchemize alibi allegation allegory gorge ally allocate aloof altercation ambition amatory prelude amaze amateur  ambidextrous ambient amble amiable amicable amorist amulet analeptic analgesia analytics anathema android amalgamated anemometry animism annals chronicles annex annul annoy anonymity antecedent arcade armature arson articulate ascension assiduity asperity asynchrony augmentation audible auger aural areola auspice austerity authenticate autonomic astronomical enumeration auxiliary avenge avert economist autonomist autonomy aviatrix axiom avow avouch bifurcate bigamy bend bind bent bisexual berate bereft hype due behave behaviorism bestiality behest bereave beholden biologism bureaucratize circumvent conscribe bacchae backslide backswept badland baddy bagnio baize balky ball hawk balmy bambino bamboozle banal bandwagon baneful banishment bankruptcy banter bandy barbarism barbarous barratry base pay bang bash bastardy bawdry lewd obscene bawdy bawl beamish beatitude beaver beat beautiful bedlam beggary begrudge befuddle perplex behalf beleaguer beneficiary benevolence benighted bequeath bequest berth betroth bevy birth bitchery bivouac blabber blandish coax blah blither blare blazon bleak blear blighter bliss bloomy blot blunder blotch blooper bludgeon gag blurt blush bluster bonkers bosh boulevard bout brat browse brunt brute buck passer buffet bungle bungalow bunk bunt buoyancy burglarize burnish burp belch burlesque bureaucratize sorrowful lamentation baleful caterwaul
true clench closet queen constitution provocative soap menagerie melee cirrus camorra caboodle cabotage cabriole cacophony cadge cahoots cagey cairn calamitous calculate calibrate  caliginous caliper calyx callet cameo campestral canard candid candidacy candelabra candor canker can’t canter canteen canoe capitation captivate capture carapace caribous carnal carnival carny cartomancy casque castellated caste castle catacomb catatonic phonics caustic cavernous celibate censor centric centrifugal centripetal certify cervixes cestus chalet chalice chameleon changling chaperone charlatan chary chaste chastise chastity cheeky cherish chesty chide chink chintzy chivalrous chinch chomp choose chortle chromatic chronic intrinsic chroma chump chutzpa chute cinch conciliatory ciliary ciliate citadel citation civility clank clammy clang clairaudience taciturn reticent classify inveterate claudication cloven cleft cliché click clinch clement clip clique clitoris cloak & dagger clobber clog clone clonk cloth clothe clothier cloture redolent clout cluck clump clumsy clunk coadunate coalition coadjutor coaster brake coax cochlea chronology inundate tits coexist anachronism coercive coitus coincide collinear collateral collegiate collision collusion coma combinatorics comfy  commandeer  commensurate comensal commend commerce commence commodious commotion compatible compensatory competitive compile complexional complicity comply connotation compost composure compunction compulsory concatenate concoct catenary concubinage condolence condemn condescending conducive cavalcade confidant confession confirmatory confiscate conformity confrontation congruence congeal congenial conjure connection connivance connote conquest conscript consequence conservatism consistent console consolidate consort conspire contagium contention continuity controvert conveyor copulative cordial cordon cornucopia coup couth coy crag cranky craven cringe crud culminate cumulate cursive credulity credulous infidel gullible diatonic perturbed derogate edict delict rage tirade irate vehemence denouement denounce tire dervish dictatorial diction proof desolate deontology Kant indenture defray detinue douceur amuse disseminate eustachian daft dainty damnify dapper dastardly dauntless daymare dead heat dead horse debauch debacle decadent debauchee decamp declamatory declension decorticate deductive default defeasance defenestration defunct defrock deformacy degeneracy deft deforce hipster mesmeric deification deist deleterious delimit deltoid delve deluge delusion delirious demimonde demesne demiurge demoniac demonetize demonstrable denizen denegation denigration demur demure despot desperation destine despise detect determinative determinism detersive deterrent detest determinacy detectaphone devout devoid detract desultory detrimental detour deviate deviant devastate devotion devious devisee devolution devolve developer dialectic dharma diagnosis prognosis matriculate diacritical differentia diffraction digenesis dignitize dignitary dilly diligence dildo dilemma dilapidate diminution dink ding diphtheria diphthong dent dirge dirk disaffirm discontinuity disclaim discern discord disconsolate discourteous discredit discontinuance discretion discriminate distain disenfranchise disenchant disencumber disenthrall disembody disgorge disgrace dishonest disguise disengage disinfestant disjunct disillusion disinfectant dislodge dismal disloyal disoblige disobey disparity disparage dismantle dismay dispatch dispel dispersive disproof dispute disrupt dissertation disrepair dissipate distillate distort distract ditto ditty diverge divaricate divert divest divulge dominion doohickey dormer doss dowdy doughty dowry drastic douse drat dray dread drawl dreary drippy drifty drivel droll drown drowsy drudge plan dubious dude dudgeon dulcify duct ductile drakeness ducky duel dull dusky tawny dynamic dwelling dwindle derisive bombastic primordial integumence parenthetically pragmatically prosaically practically protractively portion premise portent pervasive perpitude phenomena hierarchy predicate metaphysique endoskeleton ectomorphic dour droll dismal dank dreary bleak stark Electra complex lore epigone epigraph epsilon epistaxis epilation earnest earthshaker earthward earwitness eclectic ebonize electroacoustics ciphony ebullience eccentricity echelon echoic eddy edgy edify edit educe edition eerie edacious effectuate effeminate effete efficient efflux effrontery effluent effusion ego defense eidetic ejecta elaborate elapse electioneer curtail elocution elucidate elegant eloquence Elysium emancipation manumission detinue osteopathy elucubrate emasculate emaciate embark embargo emanate emblazon emote embellish elusive enhance embracive embouchure emergent emendator embryology emit emissary emitine jacquerie empathy empennage emphasis emphatic emigrant empirical emulate emunctory encephalic enclitic yuck junk funky junkies enchant enchain enclosure encroach encrustation encumber endergonic endorse endowment enduro enfetter enforce energetic enemy enema enervate engender engage propensity preternatural proclivity prestidigitation gesticulation equilibrate equilibrium equilibrist preterite rendition retroactive engross engulf enhance enjoin enlightenment enlist impressed enormous ennoble enrich  ensheathe enshroud ensnare ensnarl entanglement enthrall enthusiasm entice entity enthuse entrap entreat entrance enunciate envoy envy envisage epigynous epigraphy cipher epilogue episodic epitaph epistolary epithet equate equestrian equity equivocal equivocate eradicate erosion eroticism errancy erratic erroneous ersatz erumpent erudition erythron epistemology espalier essentialism progressivism esprit espy estimator estrus estuary etcetera ethnic ethos ethic eternal ethereal eugenic euphenics eustachian tube salpinx euthenics euthanasia evacuate evaluate evasive eventuate evaporate evict evident evil evert evolve exact exaction exult exaggerate exasperate excel excerpt exception exclaim exclude exculpate excursion excuse execration execution exempt exhume exile exhaustive exhibitionism exhilarate exegesis exert exonerate expense expletive explicit exploitation exponent export exposition exserted exposure expound expurgate ubiquitous extemporize extenuate exterminate extensive externalize extinct extort extradition extrasensory extraordinary extol extract exuberate extrude foible fasciculation twitch flinch fenestra Fabian falchion falangist Phillip felly ferro falsie teat fess fink out festinate hussy bustle fourragrere fimbria feduciary fabricant fable fabulist façade facile facilitate facsimile facture faena fain fairing fallopian fallow fascinator fash fatalism fastidious fastuous fatidic fatigue Faustian fatuity faux pas feasible faze fellatio facilitate feline feeler ferocity fertile fervid fervor fetor fetus fetology fetish feverish fester fetation fetch fiat fief fiasco feticide obnoxious fiacre figment fickle fictitious fiddling fidelity fidgety fierce fiesta  filch filly filthy finale finesse fingertip finicky fang finite firmament flabbergast fixation flak flashy flagitious flange flashpoint paroxysmal retrograde flaunt flasher flask flat flap flaw fledge flee fleece fleet fleshy flighty flick flexible flimsy flimflam fling flinty florid flora floozy flourish flotsam  flub fluke flurry flush focalize foist footing foray forfeiture forgery foreign forensic formalize format formica formulate fornication forsooth forswear perjurious fortify forte fortissimo fortuity forum abjure
abnegation fossil fosterling four flush frame up freaky frazzle frenulum fret frigidity frigate frill fringe fritter frontal fructify fruition frump frugal fuel fulcrum fulgurous fulham sable furor furring brazen furtive fustigate future perfect fuchsia find roan gauntlet gamut gatecrasher havoc glass jaw glare glass eye gabber gadzooks gaff gaga gage gaggle gag rule gainful gainsay gait gala gale gall gallery gallivant gallop galvanic gambrel roof gander gammon garb garish garble garnishment garrulous garter gasp gash gaudy gauge gaunt gavel gear fad gee haw gemma gender genealogist geotropism germinate gestation ghost writer ghoul gig gigantic gill gimmick gimp girlish gist gizzard glaive glamorize glance glaze glean glint glitch gloat globe gloomy glitter glom glob glop glorify gloss glower glutton glum slum glue hue gluteal gnash aphorism adage gnosticism gnome goggle gnomic gold digger psychic golem gore gorge gown gossipy gouge grasp greedy frigid gremlin greave grieve grin grime grim grind gripe grope groom gross grit groin grove grout growl grumpy grunt guck gruntle guide guile guild guilty guise gull gulch gully gunk gushy gust gussy up gulp gusset gush gustatory gung ho gusto gutsy gyne gyre gynecocracy gyve guy  aceimnorsuvwx  bdfhklt  fgjpqyz atheist goblin Godiva grog hang up disinter gamet zygote hunks hunkers haunches black white life death lithe heart rending miserly greedy stingy frugal habitation propinquity habituate hackamore hagride hairbreadth halftrack hallucinosis hamstring handicapper handless hangin hand woven hanker hanky panky haphazardry hari kiri fart harangue harass harbinger harem oviparous residual harmonic harpy harsh hast hassle haggle hasty pudding haugh haunt haversack haversian canal hawk hazard heady heal headway heap hearing hearty heave heathen heavenly heavy duty heft heir heinous heifer heist helix enliven glue hellion helm hemlock hence heredity primitive anachronistic hangover heretical heritage hermit recluse heresy primordial integumence skull hernia hue hex heuristic hirsute hireling ally hint hoar hoard hoax hitch hoist hokey hoot horizon hornswoggle horologist hostile hostage housebreak huckster hovel huff humeral hurtle hustle hutz pah homage homogeny exogamy hone honesty honkies hooky hutch hypercritical hypotaxis hysterics incoercible idiosyncrasy impugn idolatry ileum imagism idempotent ides ichor icky icon ics ictus ideational identity crisis matrix idea iffy ignescent illustrious immaterialize imitation inextremis immanentism immolation mollify impeach impedance impecunious impassion immutable retrograde recumbence inabsentia impious impenitence impinge implore impotent paroxysm impressment impute impromptu impoverish improvident imprudent improvise imputation inanely inanimate inauguration incorrigible inappreciative inconsequential irreverence inconsolably disconsolate irreparably irreconcilable incorporeity ideally ideogram inferential illicit incarnate incestuous inch incident converse incipient incite incognita incommodious incompliant incommunicado indagate incursion incus incumbent indecorous indecent exposure indecipherable indefeasible indenture indictable  indicative indignant indiscrete indite indolence indubitable induce indulgent industrious ineffectual inane inert inertia infamy infanticide infest infinitesimal inflect inflict infringe encroach infrastructure inflation influential informant inimical iniquitous innumerable innuendo inquisitor injunction injudicious inkling innocuous insolent insidious insipid inept phatic volatile instigate insinuate instinct intangible interdict intentional interject intimate intimidate intricacy intrigue intrinsic intrepid introspection introvert intrusive intuitive inviolate invade inundate invalid inventive inveigh inure defeasance foist isomorphic isthmus fistula jabber jackal jackleg jag jaunt jeer jerkin jest jetty jettison jiffy jig jilt jive job jack jolt josh jostle joust jovial judicious juggernaut jugglery jumble jumpy junctural jungle junk junkie jurisdiction justice justification jute jutty juvenile delinquency juxtaposition kale kalimba kangaroo court kaput karate karst kayo keel keep kempt kept keynesianism kick in kike kindle kinetic kink kist Klan kleenex kismet kirtle kith kithe kitsch klaxon knack knavery knob knout kobold koan kneed king cogent adroit lollygag lummox languorous lanyard limbus lotic loquacious lesbian lam labial lambaste lampoon landmark bilk lang syne languish languid languor larder larky larvicide larynx lascivious lateral latent recumbent lapel laud lavish layette lecher leeward leer leech legacy legate lefty lest lewd avant-garde levant avaricious liaison libido libertarian lien ligature lilt list lisp liturgy livid loiter loom loophole lubricity lubric lucent lugubrious yuck lunkhead dolt lurk luscious luster luxury lynch lysis legerity lemma lickspittle limnetic ankh maverick mare liberum marabou machete machinate machiavelianism magniloquent macroevolution macrogamete Magdalene mantis mantra maniacal manubrium mare’s nest maenad majuscule maladjustive malfeasance maleficent malefactor malevolence mash malm malocclusion manipular manifesto mastectomy maw manacle manifest Manitou mana marrow pith manumission constitution marsupial mare nostrum masseur pervade perpitude quark master plan master race mastoid glitch exiguous skimpy scanty sparse masticate matriarchy matriculate escutcheon nombril mere mathematics matrix matinee impetus maxim axiom meatus minimax mediation mediocre medley metabolic meddle ménage a trios menagerie mendacity meroblastic menial meiosis meliorate memorandum memoir memento mori menace mesne menarche menorrhagia meninx mesh mesomerism mesne lord metal methodical meticulous mettle miasma microcosm militia mingy minion koan mirage mire misnomer modality mockery molest mongrel monstrance morbid morose mortify mortise martingale motivity musky mushy murky muse mutuality muzzle myopia mystique mesomorphic nabob nadir narcosis nark native natty navaid necking pilaster neigh neuter neutrino nexus niggle nihilism nimbus nimiety nitty gritty noisome nominalism nonconformity non sequiter nooky noose nostalgia nostrum notch notion notorious noumenon nous nuance nubile nymph nympholepsy numinous nonce obliquity oblivion ubiquity eucharistic oblation obligee oasis oath obbligato obligatory obliterate obnoxious obscene obstreperously abstruse exude obviate ochlocracy odium odalisque ominous awesome omnivorous onerous onus opprobrium opprobrious optimal opulence orifice ornate orotund ostensible osteopathy oust outlier overawe overt ovum ozone procurator pagan palingenetic pallid pallor paragon pagoda palpitate pander pandemic panhandling paraphrase paternoster pathetic paunch pavilion pawky peachy peculiar pedagog pedal pedantic peart peccant peeve perception intuition peremptory perdition perdurable detinue perfective perfidy perforce periphery perjure perk permeate permute perorate perpetual perpetrate perpetuity perplexity persecute
perspicacious perspiration pertinent perturb perversion pesky perky pester pestilence petrify petrous phalanges juggernaut phenomenal phylogeny phobic phony photosensitize phrenic physicality chink physicalism pick pictorial pious piety piffle pilgrimage pinion pithy placate placid plaint planetoid plasma platitude platonic plenipotentiary plucky plunderous poach plenary plummet polemic polyphonic postulate pouch polyandry polygamy populist pounce popsicle potentate pout practicable chatter prattle precarious precedence precess precious predetermined predicament preen prelusive premonition prefix preposterous prevail prevalent presumptuous prig prim priority depravation probity prodigious profane promulgate proffered prohibitive projective promiscuity propagandize propagate prophetic prosthetic propinquity prophylaxis protocol proprietous propitious haggard proxemics prosecutor prospectus protensive proximity pummel pundit prejudice piranha punitive purgatorial purificatory putschist kitsch quag quantum jump quarrelsome quarterstaff Quetzalcoatl quickie quirt quoit rescind reverb revile mnemonics retuse rabble rachis raconteur ratification radial radix raffish raft ragamuffin railroad raiment rake ramify ramet ramus rank rancid rape rapper rapt rapture rarefy rarified rave ravel raw raze razzle-dazzle razzmatazz realm ream reap rebuttal rebuff rebuke receptaculum recital recess reconcile recondite recourse recriminate rectilinear rectify rectitude recumbent recuperate recursive redeem redolent refer reek reeve reflective reflex refraction refulgence refuge refuse relativistic reliquiae remedy remorseless remnant repertory replicate reproach reptilian repugnant repulse repulsion rescissory residue resignation resolute restitution retraction restriction restraint resuscitate reticent retentive retinue retreat retribution revel reverberation reversal revert revulsion rhapsodic rhombus rhomboid rictus ridgy rifle riff rigorous ritzy rival roan roam roar rive robust rodent rodeo roguery rollick frolic romp rote rouge rout rubbish rubble rubric rumpus rumor rural ruse rustle Ruth sitzkrieg superciliary supercilious surfeit suture bravo bravado seminal vesicle sacerdotalism sacroiliac sagacious saga safari saguaro salpinx salubrious salvo salve sanction sanctify sanguine sashay satchel satiate saucy savory scads scalpel scandalize scapula scat schmaltz schlep schnook scorn scour scoff scowl scow scram scrounge screak scud scum scuz seclude seduce seer selfish seminiferous senility sedition smear sycophant sensitize sensorium sentiment sequester sequential servile sham shindig shoddy singular screech situate skedaddle skew sketchy skittish skivvies slang slight slogan slovenly slouch sneaky snub soffit solvency sophistic spangle spar spawn spew squall squamous steeple logistical tactician strategy stupor subjunctive suborn subvert the clarity of criticism can create credibility comprehension can cause conducive consciousness supremacy surly burly squirrelly schema temporize tai pan tup trochlea ulna taboo taciturn tacit tacky tact talus tamper tang tamp tangible tangential tank tankard tassel tawny tawdry telepathic temerity telos tenable tenet ternary terra-cotta testy topos tiercel theocracy tempting thew tizzy trite thirl throng thundering tantrum tonic torso topsy-turvy torus tour de force touristic turd tout tragus tractive trance tranquil traject transcend trample transducer transfix transgress transition transposition transude transpire treasure treason trek trenchant tremendous tributary trigeminal  trollop triumph tropic tropism troth trough tractable tract strumpet trove trump trustless tribunal twang tweeze twinge twirl twaddle tunic typecast tyrannical tyrannosaur traction padness tyrant tympanum twist ukase ultraism ultima ratio ultrastructure uglify umbilicus umbra umbrage unabridged unconditional unambiguous unanimity uncanny unceremonious uninucleat union unique unison unity farce sham unmannered unremitting unspeakable upsurge upstage urchin urbanist usherette usufruct travesty usury utensil uterus utmost ut uvea utter uvula utility uxorious usurp surreptitious vagabond vagarious vagile vagrant vagrancy vale valor validate vampire vanguard vas deferens vast vaunt vector venery venial veranda venture verbalist verboten verdant verdict verge vertebration verve vexatious fierce vigil vigorous vile vilify villainous vindicate violent virtue vitalist vixen vituperative vogue vomitus volunteer vouch vulcanization vulturous vulgarism weld slag volume decimate wahoo waive wangle wee weepy welch whammy war wharfage whereof whereupon wherein wherefore whereon wherewithal whine whopper wild goose chase wishy washy wisp woeful wrathy wrought wrong xenophile bestiality fornication phantasmagoria fluent voluble yammer yelp yes man yummy zany zealotry zilch zing zombie zooidal zoom zounds zygomatic contiguous constituency confluence contiguity continuum concurrence conjunction conjugation métier quintessential

There was a motion on the floor for the nomination of a proxy to be my epigone.  I feared I didn't have enough votes to challenge so I filibustered.
Val Ajdari Nov 2013

Some fools are born, conditioned by fate,
And they, like all, still procreate.
All useful knowledge flee their minds;
Ignorance fulfill these swine.
And while they swing and cheat for joys,
The watchful eyes of their little boys
Take a glance at what they see,
And what they see is “a bigger me.”
Their little girls, in company of dolls,
On occasion foresee what befall
On them, too, as they soon explore --
An impending battle of love and war.
But then, there exists that little kid
Whose sex and gender shall remain amid
A cloud of quantum mystery;
Their wisdom calls more urgently.
And as this kid sees life unravel
Along Lacanian stages of travel,
Concerned are they with all fuss and mess,
To which most adults do not confess.
As one parent lacks all the care,
The other lives a life unfair.
In times of chaos and audacious cuss
Dear, vengeful killer, Oedipus
Consumes all facets of the mind
Of the little kid who must confine
All pain, and hatred, and all rage,
Enough to place one in a cage,
While free the bird whose wings to fly
Have been broken off, now left to die;
In part, by diabolical norms
That invade a home in all shapes and forms.
But the kid looks up at the two,
Then whispers quietly, “I’m neither of you;
Not the blinded one, on flight to reign,
Nor the indebted one, too tied to pain."
Nor does the kid ever dare to be
A product passed politically:
Ingrained in mind, in heart, and soul
A subordinate being in a bowl
That churns, and churns, and churns, and churns
While glutenous bastards more they yearn.
This ceaseless cycle leaves little choice
For the ill-fated screaming voice,
As a true language for them not made
Because demonic beings must place a shade
Over the stronger ones deprived
Appraisal for their stronger minds.
The kid, all this, can’t take to be
As what they see they wish not to see.
In this unbalanced Yin and Yang,
The kid’s perception hits a bang:
“The power lies within the one
Who mostly governs with a gun.
But, how can a human hurt their double,
When love and passion are lesser trouble?"
A fitting sex the kid cannot choose,
As in every win each sex will lose.
But slowly, as they come to be,
The kid, society directs to see
That to the right sex they must belong
As "genitalia proves feelings wrong."
This funny theory most credits Freud.
But by collective viewpoints the kid’s annoyed:
'No good is said, no good is done
For those who are all, but yet are none.'
Great gender points makes Butler, Judith,
While blind opponents seek to disprove her;
They ink 'she is wrong within her stance!'
That female unity will give rise to chance
To an inclusion of the female word,
And one that’s First...not second or third.
The opposite, still out to bend
The rules and laws, all to pretend
That the other sex does not exist
Because swollen egos must persist
In rule, in art, in build, and biz:
'Fields where opposites lack all wiz.'
The kid, in this silly world of theirs,
Looks at all these foolish heirs
Who bounce and shoot this gendered ball,
While the kid stands back and laughs at all.

Inclusion: the action or state of including
or being included within a group or structure

Solution: a means of solving a problem or
dealing with a difficult situation


Now, is ‘inclusion’ the ‘solution’?

Is confiding not always in yourself,
but being able to confide in people you trust:
a group,
a team,
not an impeccably simple way to solve complications?

Some people that dwell in isolation
succumb to despondency and desolation
and invariably,
wrap themselves in a costume of facades.
Inclusion eradicates these issues.

We as humans
want answers to our questions,
resolutions to our complications;
a myriad of different perspectives
can quickly enlighten and open the eyes
of those who truly seek a solution.

Solution to what?
Solutions to those “impossible questions”,
Solutions to those “exasperating situations” we can’t seem to get out,
Solutions to those “family troubles”
"relationship troubles",
"work troubles",
most importantly,
those “social problems”.

Inclusion is no secret,
it’s the biggest weapon we as people have.
Inclusion gives all of its users the power
to control.
Inclusion is power,
the real wealth beneath our skins.
With inclusion,
we have the solution.

(d.b.d.)

Sequacious demonstrative mongrel fantastication
Overt fantasias and monstrance clarification
Rhetorical rote of empirical justification
Whimsical enervations elicit ramification
Incite legendary fables of rectification
Tempestuous mendacious erudite personifications
Endemic epistemological semantics of edification
Evocative illuminisms engender mortification
Judicious spontaneous phantasms of gratification
Numinous salutatory statutes of ratification

Heuristic existentializing empiricisms alleviate confusion
Adamant machismo machinations eliminate delusion
Eulogizing enigma entity’s illustrious illusion
Torridly allusive revelries of reverie effusion
Educing morose maniacal moribundity’s inclusion
Epitomizing empathetic revulsions to corroborate elusion
Probitous erudite solicitations evade contusion
Raunchy riotous accoutrements appreciate exclusion
Optimizing subjunctively torpid recalcitrant collusion
Scenario syntactics of mythically epic allusion

I’m in my prime; at the cusp of my development.
A few more years of growth makes decay a lot more relevant…
Glass Elephant,
Glass Elephant,
Irrelevance, benevolence, compassion, or malevolence;
I’m one of few who sees it sums no difference.
Glass objects.
Or Elephants.
Irrelevance,
Irrelevance

Striving for motion, with motive elusive
Each thing I endeavor is far too exclusive
I need something inclusive, objectively singular
A sinusoidal wave with a mean lacking integers
Peace in zero and equilibrium inclusion
Glass Elephant
Glass Elephant
Delusions, Delusions

staticghost Mar 2013

The risk management of the marketplace
Is the social control of numbers and the objects that occupy
The private spaces facilitated for public access

The sense of inclusion is dead
Participatory democracy is paltry
But ignorance of the populace is well fed

We got McDonald's and dialysis clinics parallel
For the quickest draw in the West
While consumers are left for dead in the street

Drive through visits are killing more than drive-by grimace
The people are sick, starving from intellectual richness
In the food deserts of the inner city reflecting complexion

We got people in the dark, people in the cupboard, people on medication
And people who are discovered
People who are lost in life and the people that remember

The people who are forgotten but shallow graves expose their coffins
From Katrina, in Chicago and The World Trade Center
Afghanistan to Kuwait
Baghdad to L.A

We got tobacco and T.V. for our cellphones to film our favourite shows
On YouTube and the cables that connect satellites to servers
Owned by Facebook

Mapping out perception based on likes and qualitative commentary
The private life made public and owned by a company
Storage is expensive therefore Twitter is a luxury

Mapping of every movement, every perception ever noted, every experience endured
And lengthy inventory of contacts who are inferential and valuable
For private research into what sells or not

But they have summoned up a thunder cloud of information that wont decay
A perfect playground for your dreams
In the kilobytes through bandwidth that drips with data rich anthropological significance and grueling profits

Every word denotes a currency
Every nuance human
Every comment a controversy
And discussion for future
Anthropology
Executives at Disney and so forth
A reflection of your identity
Immutable pristine
In many places and in one
In the slipstream of technocratic ownership
and reified slavery
We are slaves
Watched and disciplined
By the mouse police who never sleep
and the experiential detention
In mindless decay of
Consumeristic philanthropy
Santa will make all better
With a gift to humanity
But the greatest gift of all
Is to consider material reality small
Insignificant and minor
A divine kind of flaw
Because the world of universals waits for us all

The paper trails that lead right to the rain forest are burned by our obsession to be more intelligent

Burning through books that poison through the finger tips and the mind it rots from ego

In the radiation of a computer hums the mother of invention

Further from our inception but reminiscent

Of the strange vibrations

And single cells

That evolved into a nation, a species and civilization

A giant to the termites
Under the sun

Nothing to the planets and no one and nothing in planetary domain
Immediate solar system conflicts with nothing but the desire to assuage the ego
Twitter, Facebook and T.V. become the anxiolytics of the age

Anti-deppressed, full of meaning and significance to broadcast my adumbration of the universe
To you

But those mediums are pretentious and artificial
While arteries clog, neurons die and time is dwindled
To the final grain of sand
The final cut

Is to sever all the pain
The attachment to self
Turn on tune in and drop out
Relax and float downstream
This is not dying
Only living forever
In the rusting servers in a burned out city somewhere

Before the lights go out
Don't forget to love
and let love shine through

There will be no darkness only light
It was all a game of malicious intent
A trivialization of momentary experience
Rotting in some book in the ditch
Or on some hard drive defunct

Worthless until now
That the light has shone through

sarah gentry Feb 2014

Russian black grass and an ornate pattere  garden,
pheasants basking in uncertainty
culpable designs eyeing towards.
Yellow book inclusion,
asks more than the obelisks shadows casting down the acers,
the mia crocus still a red mist
before laying the asphalt driveway.

Our hierarchys have evolved to weed out
like social eugenics purging the weakest
in a life of abundance for those with
shelter, wealth, water, status
sex still drives to test us
On a basic level our tribal heritage
bleeds into everything we do
every construct every experience
bitter jealousy nipping at our heals
every person flush in the face
with smug wrath never ending
This is an arrow we will have to catch
mid flight
and Break In Half
This is a source of suffering
and disillusionment
we must strive for more inclusion
Or let an idea destroy us

Sandra C Oct 2013

why am i
so alone
in the midst of
attempted inclusion?

and why
am i
satisfied by it?

please
leave me

alone

Simon Clark Aug 2012

Standing in the silence of loneliness,
I ponder a life with others,
A day in the sun with friends,
With family and lovers,
But instead i wait patiently,
Patiently longing for an inclusion,
Far away from my...
....
...
...seclusion.

written in 2011
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