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Äŧül Nov 2019
Similar but unidentical primers used,
To amplify the same gene
But from different organisms,
And the consequences are again
Similar but not identical.

A useful technique it is
As the genetic code
Itself is degenerate,
Meaning several different
Codons code for the same
Amino acid.

Different organisms
Are allowed this way
To have unique genetics
For highly similar proteins.

We use degenerate primers as well,
When designing is based
On protein sequences
Because of unknown
Codon sequences.

Them we may use
For resurrecting extinct animals
And play God.

It's already happening,
The beautiful Pyrenean Ibex,
Also known as the Bucardo,
Hunted down to extinction,
In past not so distant,
Was brought back to life.

The science used was biotechnology,
Degenerate primers and another
Technique known as SCNT,
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer,
Used in synergy to bring the ibex back.
My HP Poem #1790
©Atul Kaushal
Äŧül Oct 2019
A Finn-Dorset clone,
Now not the alone.

Born on 5 July in 1996,
She died on Valentine's Day in 2003.

The celebrity sheep she died at the age of six,
Produced not from the common ovine ***.

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer created her, read on.

Named after Dolly Parton,
'Coz of her admired *****.

Somatic cells were taken from a sheep's udders,
Extracted not without the sheep's jitters.

This sheep was the donor.

However, these cells were enucleated,
And the enucleated nucleus was handled.

Injected it was into a Finn-Dorset's embryo,
Oh yes, the embryo was without a nucleus.

This sheep was the recipient.

Without a folly, born was Dolly,
Resemble she did the donor.

Not only in its visible phenotype
But also in its invisible genotype.

Differ she did but only in her mitochondrial DNA.

Her birth did open a new portal,
Now pet lovers get their pets cloned.
A poem about something I am probably going to work on for the next three years for my PhD in Animal Biotechnology.

My HP Poem #1777
©Atul Kaushal
Äŧül Sep 2019

Just what science required,
Enticed by bioengineering,
Nucleotides it concerned,
Nucleosides it can fix,
Increasing the methods,
For editing genome,
Errors in the genes it fixes,
Righting some wrongs of mother nature.

Decoded by a wonderful lady,
On a day of helplessness,
Utilizing this tool we are now,
Debted by science and technology,
Neat-handed through practice we become,
Always we shall utilize CRISPR-Cas9 for good.

Few people notice that DNA is the suffix of her name.
A poem about something I am working on right now.

Jennifer Anne Doudna and Emmanuelle Marie Charpentier innovated CRISPR-Cas9.

My HP Poem #1770
©Atul Kaushal
Äŧül Jan 2017
The desired gene could be found
In each cell of the body,
But it expresses positively in few cells.

A trefoil factor encoding gene I mean,
It is found in the intestine
TFF1 is found exclusively in the intestine.

TFF1 is also known as pS2
Meaning protein for specificity 2,
2nd gene discovered for specificity protein.

TFF1 protects gastrointestinal mucosa,
From any injuries that may result
Out of pathogenic invasion.

The trefoil factor 2 encoding gene
Is also found in the intestine
But TFF2 plays a different role in the body.

TFF2 is also known as pS1
Meaning protein for specificity 1,
1st gene discovered for specificity protein.

TFF2 protects gastrointestinal mucosa,
From any cancer that may result
Out of oncogenic activity.

And the third trefoil factor encoding gene,
It is only expressed in the female womb
But TFF3 is crucial for a successful pregnancy.

I love my field of study very much
And I respect my major guide,
Dr Ashok Kumar Mohanty, he is so wise.
Genes translate into proteins which are crucial for life.
Also needs to be mentioned is Dr Suman Chaudhary who helps me greatly in following the directions by Dr Mohanty.
My HP Poem #1386
©Atul Kaushal
Äŧül Dec 2016
Preventing contamination,
A constant challenge in cell culture.
Contamination not only affects,
The culture in question and,
Costs time and money,
But also endangers the reproducibility of results.

No cell culture problem,
Is as universal as that of culture loss
Due to contamination.

Generally, contamination may be separated,
Into categories of microbial,
And eukaryotic contamination.

Examples of microbial contamination include:
Bacteria (including Mycoplasma),
Fungi and yeast;
Eukaryotic contamination includes:
Cross-contamination with other cell lines.

Bacteria, yeast and fungi,
The three more common types of contamination,
But luckily these forms are often detectable,
Under the microscope and,
By visual cues,
Like colour or turbidity changes in the medium.

Mycoplasma is a small genus of bacteria,
That lack a cell wall and for this reason,
They remain unaffected by common antibiotics.
They are also difficult to detect,
With standard microscopes,
Due to their size, about 0.1 μm in diameter,
And the fact that they often attach to host cells.


To prevent contamination,
Use 70% ethanol for disinfecting,
Equipment & surfaces,
Related to cell culture.
Sterile filter the media first,
Before bringing to the lab.

Fetal Bovine Serum,
A potential source of contamination,
Contains mycoplasma.
Filter it at 0.1 μm, or,
Gamma irradiate it.
Aseptic technique,
Necessary.

The laboratory workers be the last,
But not the least source of contamination.
Teach them the ideal laboratory practices,
To ensure asepticity in a laboratory.
Source: American Laboratory

For revising an important topic from Animal Cell Culture.

HP Poem #1299
©Atul Kaushal
Äŧül Dec 2015
The first buffalo IVFed in India,
And the world is named Pratham.

It was produced by Hand-Guided Cloning technique,
By the Animal Biotechnology scientists here at NDRI.

High precision was not enough,
100% accuracy was the need here.

But now they have developed techniques using micromanipulator,
Still it requires expertise and it's only a tad bit convenient & easier.

The youngest cloned buffalo born is named Rajat,
It is both alive since July 23, 2014 and also kickin' its keepers.
NDRI - the locally popular acronym for National Dairy Research Institute, is both my home since childhood and my M.Tech (Animal Biotechnology) Deemed University college.

Pratham means 'first' in Sanskrit.

My HP Poem #933
©Atul Kaushal

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